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Domestic Life During the Depression, 1928-1938, in Livingston County, Missouri
by James R. Nashan.  1974


A Research Paper Presented to The Faculty of the School of Arts and Sciences

Central Missouri State University

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Specialist, History

by James R. Nashan

May, 1974

The Great Depression of the 1930's which created unemployment, business and bank failures, farm bankruptcy and relief lines was a failure of our economic system. September 3, 1929 has been used by some as the start of the depression, because this was the day the Big Bull Market reached its peak. From this high point, the market tumbled, (1) and America moved into a period of enormous economic and political transformation. (2)

President Hoover took several steps to change the financial crisis. The Reconstruction Finance Corporation was established to aid banks and business in trouble with the intent of safeguarding savings and securing worker's jobs. Hoover also started new public works projects for the improvement of rivers and harbors to put money into the economy. Several of President Hoover's proposals were defeated by the Democratic Congress, but those that were passed were inadequate to resolve the financial crisis. (3)

Franklin Roosevelt, campaigning in 1932, promised the nation a New Deal. Once he was elected, he began a process of experimentation to attempt to improve conditions in the nation. Hundreds of new policies were designed to pump money into the economy. Among these policies, some of the major ones were: The Agricultural Adjustment Act which provided help to farmers, The National Recovery Act for help in business, The Federal Emergency Relief Administration which provided for immediate help to those in need, The Works Progress Administration, Civil Works Administration and the Public Works Administration which provided jobs to the unemployed. (4)

The economic set back created by the depression influenced the social life of the American citizens. There were less marriages, less divorces and the number of children decreased. Young people, unable to find employment, took to the road to find work and to relieve the family from having another one to support.

The purpose of this paper will be to examine the influence of the depression on a rural county located in North Central Missouri. Livingston County was an area described as the place where the town of Chillicothe stayed open on Saturday night so that the farmers could flock in from every point to do their shopping. (5) The economic base of the county was agrarian.

Livingston County in 1930 boasted a population of 18,619. Though predominately rural, it followed the trend of the rest of Missouri as the urban population had increased during the preceding decade. (6) Chillicothe, the county seat and the largest city in the county had 8,177 residents. Even though the majority vocation was related to farming, the county also had numerous industries which included a brick plant, iron and steel works, steam and sheet shop and a number of smaller industries connected with the automobile. (7)

Residents in the urban areas had modern homes with water and electricity. Median value of the home was $2,222. (8) The average family consisted of three, and 744 of the homes were complete with radio sets.

Rural families in limited numbers also had radio sets. Their family size averaged 3.49, (9) but only 178 dwellings had water, 139 electric lights, 1,473 telephones and 94 rural families had indoor bathrooms. Farm machinery was being introduced into the county, but not yet on a large scale. In 1930 there were 98 trucks, 237 tractors and 403 stationary gas engines. Farm roads were primarily dirt with only 30 farms on gravel roads and 79 on cement. (10)

The average size of the family farm was 141.7 acres with a value of sixty dollars an acre. By 1935 the farm had decreased to 138 acres with a value of forty dollars per acre. (11) Farm debt was low in 1930 with a county average of fifty dollars. (12) Like other counties in North Central Missouri, farmers produced grain crops of corn, wheat and oats, (13) and livestock of cattle, swine and horses. The horse provided the chief source of farm power. (14)

Many events may have captured the attention of a Livingston County resident in 1928. The circus came to Chillicothe complete with sixteen professional acts. (15) For 25 cents, a night could be spent at one of the theaters where in June "The Escape" starring Virginia Valli and William Russell was viewed. (16) If you were an alumni of Chillicothe Business College and did not mind the drive, you could motor to Kansas City for the Annual Duck Picnic at Swope Park. (17) Yet the major event of concern to the county was in Kansas City where the Republican National Convention was taking place.

Livingston County provided several delegates to the convention. Many were farmers who were there to protest the nomination of Hoover and to demand a strong farm relief bill. (18) Some were there for the fun of the convention. M. C. Drumm, a delegate commenting on draft movements said some wanted to draft Coolidge and others wanted to draft Dawes. Nicholas Butler made a speech favoring either draft or bottled goods. Drumm said all draft movements were defeated, but his personal observation showed quite a number of delegates were with Butler in "spirits." (19) The convention over, the delegates returned to Chillicothe where a few weeks later Chevrolet Day was observed.

Chevrolet Day in Chillicothe was observed as a day of promotion and entertainment. There were prizes for everybody, prizes for flappers and sheiks, and a prize for the most attractive couple If you had freckles and were driving a Chevrolet you could win a prize. With the previous political conventions in mind, there was even a prize for the best decorated Chevrolet depicting the GOP or the Democrats. (20)

Installment buying made its entrance into Livingston County late in 1928. Headlines of the paper stated "Local Boys Pull City Stuff." (21) For the first time in Chillicothe the Palm Optical Company was offering to sell its product on installment. One dollar down, one dollar a week. (22) With all this new buying power, the county voted with the country for prosperity and Hoover in the November presidential elections. (23) They were not complaining about Hoover in the fall of 1929.

As Wall Street was starting its decline in September of 1929, (24) Livingston County was concerned about the death toll on the highway and the fast drivers on Calhoun Street in Chillicothe. (25) The ministerial alliance in Chillicothe was fighting the city council's call for an election concerning the showing of movies on Sunday. (26) When the plunge on Wall Street came in October, the county was aware that billions had been lost, but the majority of the residents were more concerned about the state shucking contest and the two boys who had been charged with assaulting a local girl. (27) Local events of entertainment included the Strand Theater where "Pleasure Crazed," an all talking movietone drama was being shown. (28)

Halloween in the county in 1929 produced a variety of tricks. While billions were being lost on Wall Street, vandals were scaring the town of Chillicothe

. Telephone poles were placed across the street, a porch was torn off, windows were soaped, and a group tried to "rush" the Strand Theater. (29)

A marathon dance replaced Halloween tricks in local interest.

Ernest Butler dropped out of the dance at 9:15 and created a stir when he did not offer an explanation. (30) No further explanation was ever given. The county officials tried to provide more entertainment by pouring liquor from an airplane. But since the newsreel people were not interested, the airplane was canceled and the liquor was poured down the sewer. It was closely guarded until the last drop went down the drain. (31) Livingston County was aware of the economic crisis started by the decline on Wall Street, but it did not affect them because being a rural community they had been fighting low income for years. (32)

Depression conditions of 1930 began to affect the county by March of 1930. The county now had movies on Sunday when church was not in progress, (33) but many rural schools were closing due to lack of funds. The failure of property owners to pay their taxes caused the Girdner and Happy Hollow schools to close the last of March. (34) The need of money and fear of the market condition led one individual to advertise as cheap - 55 shares of Citizens National Bank stock. (35) The supply of money did not improve, and in December of 1930, the Livingston County Court informed their collectors that they should collect all personal taxes even if they had to seize goods by due process of law and sell them for taxes . (36) Movies were affected by the depression. In December the Strand Theater was having charity night with 25% of the proceeds to go to the Rotary and Kiwani Clubs for distribution to the poor. (37)

Declining economic conditions continued to affect the lives of Livingston Countians in 1931. The Red Cross, with a goal of $200, was able to collect only $31. (38) Youth from neighboring: areas had left home searching for employment and excitement. (39) Blaming the Republicans for the depression, the Democrats gained every position except one in the city of Chillicothe. Wards that had usually gone GOP went to the Democrats. (40)

In May of 1931, the 14th District Rotary met in Chillicothe. A parade, a Governor's Ball and a banquet were part of the entertainment for the delegates who arrived by automobile and Pullman sleeper car. (41) Later in the same month, the Chillicothe High School Band attended Sousa Day in Tulsa, Oklahoma. (42)

Another type of entertainment in the making was interrupted when Shorty Hines was arrested and fined $100 for making home-brew at Jimtown Bridge south of Chillicothe. (43) Home town girls were able to compete for $20 in prizes in a bathing suit contest at the Dickinson Theater. (44) County residents did have a variety of entertainment, but effects of the depression were still felt.

Economic problems were also a part of Livingston County the latter half of 1931. Other ads appeared offering bank stock for sale, and in October the Farmers and Merchants Bank in Chillicothe closed. Rumors were blamed for the run on the bank. One director said if people had gone about their affairs calmly

it would never have happened. Citizens National, another bank, advertised that they had plenty of money, (45) and the following day people with worried looks were lined up outside the bank to draw out their savings. The Citizens National Bank was ready for the run as they opened three windows for withdrawal and had a machine gun installed to be ready in case any robbers would be tempted, due to the large amount of money present. (46) The need for money remained for some residents and one man advertised for work of any kind. (47)

Taxes proved a heavy burden in 1932. One minister circulated a petition asking the city council to lower city taxes by using money from light and water surplus. (48) Chillicothe school taxes were lowered from one dollar to ninety-five cents, and the number of teachers were reduced to ten. Salaries of the remaining teachers were also lowered. (49) Taxes proved to be a problem to the city of Chillicothe as they proposed a sewer bond with no increase in taxes which was opposed by the local newspaper. In its editorial the paper stated that, "If any additional bond issue is voted against property, it is reasonable to assume that the conditions will become worse rather than better. People are demanding relief from taxes today, not more taxes." (50) The editor then advised the city to seek methods of reducing expense and cutting taxes rather than maintaining them at their present level. (51) The paper's influence was felt, the sewer bond was defeated. (52)

Problems other than taxes were facing the county in 1932. The First National Bank of Chillicothe had failed and was in receivership. (53) Questions relating to the bonus for veterans were before the Vern Glick American Legion Post, and though they did not take any action, they did pass a motion favoring the reduction of interest on bonus loans. (54) Perhaps the above mentioned problems helped the county politically, as they voted with the state for Franklin Roosevelt in the November election.

Hoover's last year as president was not disregarded by the county. Chillicothe's band motored to Des Moines, Iowa for a Hoover Day parade, and the adults who took cars were given reserve seats to hear Hoover. (55) Homecoming at the Chillicothe Business College provided the area with a big parade, a big dance and a big game with Kemper. (56)

Business men in Livingston County were optimistic prior to Roosevelt's inauguration They stated that the county had weathered the depression well, and they expected a gradual upturn in the economy. (57) Mrs. Luther Townsend of northwest Breckenridge tried to help business. She ordered a new spring wagon that had to be shipped from Indiana. Calling her new buggy a '34 Model she stated that horses and buggies were the safest and surest mode of travel. (58) Other residents did not have the faith in the economy as the business men One man filed bankruptcy and farmers started protectionist meetings. (59)

"Protective Associations" were organized in Livingston County to stop mortgage foreclosures they promised non-violence, stating they merely wanted to get mortgagor and mortgagee together. (60) Creamridge Township met. in Chula and formed one of the first associations. Their discussion concerned the relationship of the selling price of property to its assessed valuation. They also asked that auto license fees be lowered. (61) Though the members in the associations increased following this first meetings there wasn't the threat of violence which occurred in other counties of north Missouri. (62) Farmers did receive some bright news as Chillicothe stores promised to cash their cream checks. Before this announcement, farmers were not bringing their cream to town, so we can assume it was poured out, possibly for swine food. (63)

The bank holiday called by President Roosevelt was joined by Citizens National Bank. They reported they would be open for change only, and would keep people's moneys but would not open new accounts during the holiday. The bank reported that it was in better condition than ever. (64) Following the holiday, money started flowing from lock boxes and cubby-holes to the banks. People were opening new accounts at Citizens National and the bank reported that those opening new accounts with outstanding old checks could inform the banker which ones he wanted cashed. (65) Besides new accounts people were also turning in gold and gold certificates as the government had dictated. (66)

Violation of the liquor laws appeared to have been one of the largest criminal problems in the county. Four liquor raids in February (67) resulted in one arrest, and a raid in March meted a jug of liquor and a boiler hid in a straw stack The owner was arrested. (68) One gentleman paid $475.00 for what he thought were kegs of Canadian whiskey, but it turned out to be sawdust. Even though the purchase was in violation of local law, the victim reported it to the sheriff. No charges were filed. (69)

Entertainment in the county slowed in1933, but residents of Livingston County still went out for corn husking. Shucking was becoming a popular contest, and eleven Livingston Countians met at Ed Smith's farm to try for county championship. (70) If you were not interested in husking, you still had a choice of movies to attend in Chillicothe. In November the Dickinson Theater featured Mae West with Cary Grant in "I'm no Angel." The prices were reasonable since the admission was thirty-five cents for adults and ten cents for kiddies. (71)

Relief projects were started in Livingston County the latter part of 1933. The first relief project for the unemployed was set up by the county court. (72) Two hundred men were given work on civil projects with the largest crews working in the city of Chillicothe on clean up. One hundred of these men also spent some time graveling roads. (73) A large relief project set up under the federal government was the Civil Works Administration , an agency established to furnish immediate employment. (74) Headquarters for the C. W. A.. in Livingston County were Central School where Mrs. Allen Moore as county chairman helped the unemployed. Women were employed under a separate division of the C. W. A., and in Chillicothe these women worked on used clothing putting them into shape for distribution to the poor. Only women without able bodied husbands were eligible for the thirty hour work week. (75) Men under the supervision of M. G. Drumm moved dirt in Simpson, then were taken to a timber to cut wood. (76) Children of the poor in Chillicothe were treated by the Chillicothe firemen. The firemen, cooperating with the Salvation Army played Santa to 550 poor children. (77) Despite the problems of relief and unemployment, the Chillicothe businessmen prior to 1934 once again stated that business was in an upward trend.

The C. W. A. continued to bring employment to Livingston County in 1934. Payday in January showed 274 men and 50 women employed. New projects for sanitation and pest control for orchards were to employ 20 men. (79) Another C. W. A. project gathered statistical information on tax delinquency farm mortgage foreclosures and land values. (80) When it appeared that the C. W. A. projects were in good shape the work was stopped because of the depletion of funds. (81) Work was resumed later on the C. W. A. project, but the number of hours were cut to twenty-four in the city and fifteen in the country. The women projects discontinued. (82) With job losses and less hours, those on direct relief increased in the county. The county was concerned that if men stayed on the dole too long, they would grow into indolent ways and never be shaken loose. (83)

The Civilian Conservation Corps was set up by the federal government in April of 1933 to help young unemployed and untrained men not provided for by other agencies. Men between the ages of eighteen and twenty-three from needy families were eligible for jobs in national and state parks. (84) The Livingston County C. C. C. in April of 1934 sent eighty boys to reforestation camps. The boys received $30 a month with $20 sent home, to a dependent. This added $1,500 a month for spending in the county. (85)

The Federal Emergency Relief Administration was get UP by the federal government to give immediate relief. F. E. R. A. was used in Livingston County though not in any large amount. One story coming out of the F. E. R. A. concerned a Chillicothe family stranded in Albuquerque, New Mexico without money, who applied for funds to return home.(86) Since nothing further was reported we can assume the money was obtained.

Community gardens were used to help provide relief in Livingston County. The garden was made up of 18 acres of potatoes, 15 acres of beans, 15 acres of sweet corn and 5 acres in tomatoes. Garden seed was distributed to relief families, and they were told to plant and take care of them. Livingston County reportedly had the largest garden in the state, and when harvest time came, a cannery was established by the Salvation Army.

Thousands of cans of food from the gardens were prepared by relief workers. The final count showed the cannery had twenty-two thousand cans of food. The garden had been enlarged to 50 acres so they could include 20 acres of navy beans. Forty people worked in the canning factory under the supervision of Mrs. Verna Jackson. Mrs. Jackson stated that she inspected the finger nails of men and women in the factory morning, noon and night, and she employed only workers who had no disease or body ailments. A daily bath was also required before the uniform consisting of a white cap and white apron could be donned. (87) Gardens and the canning factory provided healthy foods to the reported 909 persons on relief in the county in 1934. (88)

Declining property values hurt the schools in Livingston County. Many rural schools closed, and some that remained open did so because the teacher worked without pay. In Chillicothe the appeal went out to the voters to approve the eighty-five cent levy. Chillicothe school systems were reported to be operating an outstanding educational program despite the depression. The levy was approved. (89)

Entertainment for the county during 1934 was sometimes illegal. Shuster Shell Station and Shirley and Vincent's Cafe boasted of slot machines which the town confiscated . (90) Legal entertainment included the movie "Bedside" at the Ritz for five cents and ten cents, (91) and Chillicothe also beat Trenton in the first game of checkers at the North Central Tournament. (92)

Relief projects were an important county project in 1935. Wood was cut on a local farm and provided to the needy. (93) Needy families were again told to plant and care for gardens. They were told if they failed to put in a garden they might not remain on relief rolls. (94) The county again had a garden and canning factory. The size had been increased to 80 acres and people who worked on the garden were given 20% of the produce. (95) This garden project was carried on under the State Garden Department of the U. S. Rehabilitation Department. Due to drought conditions, farmers ware able to sell their cattle to the government. Most of the county's farmers used this method to reduce their herd, thus keeping them from paying excessive amounts for feed. (97)

Aid to farmers was given in the Agricultural Adjustment Act. Livingston County farmers took advantage of the Hog-Corn Program of the A. A. A. which was an attempt to curtail production. (98)

Politics entered the relief problem in 1935. In the city election, a citizen's organization asked why a starving man had to be a Democrat to get a job. A bipartisan ticket was set up to oppose the Democrats, and election day proved exciting. In what was called the city's blackest election, cash and liquor were used to induce voters to vote. Burns Detectives were hired by both sides to intimidate voters. Verbal exchanges between workers, interference with automobile workers, repeat voters and non-resident votes all contributed to a deplorable election. (99) Election results showed a split between the citizen's organization and the Democrats.

Prosperity letters were the fad of Livingston County in the spring of 1935. Hundreds of letters poured into the post office. These were dime chain letters where you were assured of riches if you did not break the chain. The chain letter expanded, and soon vacations, clothing and new cars were included in the

letters. Everybody had a chain letter. More than that, nearly everybody had more than one and upwards to fifty. (100) Prosperity letters were printed and ready to mail for a few cents. It was illegal, but .... "you can't put everyone in jail." (101) The number of chain letters kept increasing. The mud, wind, dust - none of them could stop the chain letter. (102)

Dust was one element the county possessed. Dust storms started in 1934 coming out of Kansas. In March of 1934, dust storms were increasing in size and ferocity. (103) Particles of red dust obscured the sun making traffic dangerous. (104)

Dust storms continued to reach the county, but to the amazement of the residents of the county, the storms turned out to be a benefit. Soil which settled over the county proved to be more fertile than local soil. (105) Dust storms which came from the dust bowl of the southwest continued into 1936. (106)

Government relief projects continued and increased in size and number. The C. W. A. was gone, but a work relief project had taken its place. (107) Student aid of $11.60 a month under the National Youth Administration was given to eight county youths. Adult education projects were sat up by the Works Progress Administration providing classes which updated reading, writing arithmetic and history. (109) By January 25, 1936 the W. P. A. was sponsoring sixteen projects that employed 260 people at a cost of $56,627. These projects included street construction, wrecking buildings and sewer construction. (110) Under the Resettlement Administration, eighty-one farm families were helped in Livingston County. (111) Federal money helped to relieve the poverty conditions in Livingston County.

Returning prosperity also meant a return of a greater variety of entertainment. Local talent was used to raise money for the Chillicothe High School Band. (112) A new coffee shop was built by the Strand Hotel which included an area for dancing. (113) Miss Chillicothe was chosen for competition at the state level. (114) People stopped to look at the new Terraplane car that had a rear opening for baggage, (115) and then they showed up at Barnes Chevrolet to view the car in which Bonnie and Clyde died. It: was on a tour sponsored by the Anti-crime Association of the United States. (ll6) The county even had a day set aside for men. May 15th was the day men put on straw hats for the season . (117)

Politics were hot in the campaign of 1936. Democrats were pointing to Social Security as the right of every worker. "Democrats gave it to you - don't let the Republicans take it away. Vote for Franklin Roosevelt, friend of labor." (118)

Republicans were advertising the fraud in the elections. They asked everyone to vote because, "You know all the fraudulent votes in the cities will be cast regardless of the weather. If you want your voice in government, don't let the rain stop you, vote for America - for honest elections." (119) The Democrats made a clean sweep in the county. (120)

Depression relief programs declined some in 1937. Aid from Livingston County was sent to help flood victims near Cairo, Illinois. (121) The R. A. advised the availability of funds for farm families needing credit. (122) The gardening project went on, but not with the same vigor. By December of 1937, 275 families were still on relief. (123)

The big event of 1937 in Livingston County was the centennial celebration Letters of support were received from President Roosevelt and Governor Lloyd Stark. (124) Senator Bennett Champ Clark was on hand for the main address. Livestock judging, horse shows, band contests, fireworks, football games and a complete outdoor floor show provided entertainment for the crowds. The weekly celebration ended with services in all churches the grand finale of the pageant. (125)

Events other than the centennial which provided leisure hours to the county included pinball and gaming tables. In raids, city and county officers collected fourteen pinball machines and three gaming tables which were held as evidence of gambling. (126) The Chillicothe Business College Homecoming drew delegates by bus, train and auto from Chicago, St. Louis and Kansas City. (127) Farmers made their own entertainment as a delegation of over 200 journeyed to Marshall for the National Corn Shucking Contest. (128) Residents sporting their new drivers licenses, (129) had to drive carefully because the sport of bicycling was on the comeback. (130)

Depression problems were fading out of the news in 1938. There was a labor dispute involving bricks and knives between union and non-union laborers at the utility plant, (l31) but in most cases, people were concerned with the parade of Chillicothe Homecoming which was the longest in ten years. (132)

Farmers in the community were trying to decide about electricity through the R. E. A. or whether they should try hybrid corn. (133 ) Merchants of the community also provided promotions to get the people in town.

Rooster Day was a promotional event when farmers were offered 10 cents a pound for old roosters. This price, which was above the market, enticed the farmer to buy what he needed now. He sold his rooster, collected a receipt, then spent it in the stores receiving what was left over in cash. (134) Following Rooster

Day, the local Lions Club presented Cornucopia, an indoor carnival where for twenty-five cents you could play bingo and see an amateur show. (135)

By election day in 1938, the county was ready for another change. Election returns in 1938 showed that Livingston County voted like the nation. The Republicans had made a comeback winning six out of nine offices in Livingston County. Democrats retained only three offices despite the fact they held a victory dance, complete with a hillbilly band. The Republicans, prior to the elections had a guest speaker. (136)

Livingston County residents lives changed during the depression. They received aid from state and federal agencies like other sections of the country There was no evidence of youth roaming the country side and since it was a rural community, few if any went hungry. Banks did fail, and people were unemployed, but the lifestyle of the county changed little from what it was in the twenties. This rural community had provided their own entertainment in the twenties, and they did the same in the thirties Though the county did not suffer as much as other areas, it was affected by the depression.


1. Frederick Lewis Allen, Since Yesterday, (New York: Perennial

Library, Harper and Row, 1939), 1 - 3

2. Ibid., 1.

3. Duane Meyer, The Heritage of Missouri, (Hazelwood, Missouri: State Publishing Co., Inc., 1963), 625

4. Ibid., 623 - 627.

5. Clyde Brian Davis, The Age Of Indiscretion. (New York: J. B. Lippincott Company, 1950), 98.

6. United States Bureau of the Census, Fifteenth Census Of The United States: 1930, Population, Vol. III. (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1932, 1943.

  1. Ibid., 1366.

8. United States Bureau of the Census, Fifteenth Census Of The United States: 1930, Agriculture, Vol. II. (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1932), 741.

9. United States Bureau of the Census, Fifteenth Census Of The United States: 1930, Populatian, Vol. VI. (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1932), 748.

10. United States Bureau of the Census, Agriculture Vol. II. op. cit., 1075.

11. Ibid., 275.

12. Ibid., 1066

13. Ibid., 1008.

14. Ibid., 983.

15. Chillicothe, (Missouri) Constitution Tribune, May 21, 1928.

16. Ibid., June 13, 1928.

11. Ibid., June 15, 1928.

18. Ibid., June 14, 1928.

19. Ibid., June 16, 1928.

20. Ibid., August 6, 1928..

21. Ibid., October 11, 1928.

22. Ibid.,

23. Ibid., November 20, 1928.

24. Allen, op. cit., 2.

25. Chillicothe (Missouri) Constitution Tribune, September, 1929.

26. Ibid., September 10, 1929.

27. Ibid., October 28, 1929.

28. Ibid., October 29, 1929.

29. Ibid., October 30, 1929.

30. Ibid., November 6, 1929.

31. Ibid., November 22, 1929.

32. Allen, op. cit., 10 - 12.

33. Chillicothe (Missouri) Constitution Tribune, March 4, 1930.

34. Ibid., March 29, 1930.

35. Ibid., April 11, 1930.

36. Ibid., December 16, 1930.

37. Ibid., December 15, 1930.

38. Ibid., January 17, 1931.

39. Ibid., April 27, 1931.

40. Ibid., May 5, 1931.

41. Ibid., May 5, 1931.

42. Ibid., May 23, 1931.

43. Ibid., June 11, 1931.

44. Ibid., July 1, 1931.

45. Ibid., October 12, 1931.

46. Ibid., October 13, 1931.

47. Ibid., October 22, 1931.

48. Ibid., February 22, 1932.

49. Ibid., April 22, 1932.

50. Ibid., July 2, 1932.

51. Ibid.

52. Ibid., July 6, 1932.

53. Ibid., March 1, 1932.

54. Ibid., August 23, 1932.

55. The Gabbler (Chillicothe, Missouri) October 21, 1932.

56. Chillicothe (Missouri) Constitution Tribune October 20, 1932.

57. Ibid., January 3, 1933.

58. Ibid., January 4, 1933.

59. Ibid., January 11, 1933.

60. Ibid., February 21, 1933.

61. Ibid., February 23, 1933.

62. Meyer, op. cit. 635.

63. Chillicothe (Missouri) Constitution Tribune, March 8, 1933.

64. Ibid., March 4, 1933.

65. Ibid., March 9, 1933.

66. Ibid., March 11, 1933.

61. Ibid., February 6r 1933.

68. Ibid., March 13, 1933.

69. Ibid., November 23, 1933.

70. Ibid., October 27, 1933.

71. Ibid., November 11. 1933.

72. Ibid., November 17~ 19)3.

73. Ibid., December 4, 1933.

74. Meyer, op. cit., 627.

75. Chillicothe (Missouri) Constitution Tribune, December 23, 1933.

76. Ibid., December 29, 1933.

77. Ibid., December 26, 1933.

78. Ibid., December 29, 1933.

79. Ibid., January 6, 1934.

80. Ibid., January 9, 1934.

81. Ibid., February 12, 1934.

82. Ibid., February 16, 1934.

83. Ibid., March 91 1934.

84. Meyer, op. cit., 637.

85. Chillicothe (Missouri) Constitution Tribune, April 2, 1934.

86. Ibid., April 17, 1934.

81. Ibid., April 18, 1934.

88. Ibid., December 14, 1934.

89. Ibid., December 22, 1934.

90. Ibid., March 30, 1934.

91. Ibid., January 20, 1934.

92. Ibid., April 11, 1934.

93. Ibid., December 6, 1934.

94. Ibid., January 29, 1935.

95. Ibid., April 5, 1935.

96. Ibid., April 12, 1935.

97. Ibid., May 2, 1935.

98. Ibid., January 7,1935.

99. Ibid., October 16, 1934.

100. Ibid., May 1, 1935.

101. Ibid., May 7, 1935.

102. Ibid., May 2, 1935.

103. Ibid., May 3, 1935.

104. Ibid., March 20, 1935.

105. Ibid., April 11, 1934.

106. Ibid., April 17, 1935.

107. Ibid., March 2, 1936.

108. Ibid., January 7, 1936.

109. Ibid., January 13, 1936.

110. Ibid., January 20, 1936.

111. Ibid., January 25, 1936.

112. Ibid., April 29, 1936.

113. The Gabbler (Chillicothe, Missouri) March 20, 1936.

114. Chillicothe (Missouri) Constitution Tribune, March 31, 1936.

115. Ibid., April 18, 1936.

116. Ibid., April 1, 1936.

117. Ibid., May 21, 1936.

118. Ibid., May 15, 1936.

119. Ibid., November 2, 1936.

120. Ibid., November 2, 1936.

121. Ibid., November 4, 1936.

122. Ibid., January 30, 1937.

123. Ibid., August 21, 1937.

124. Ibid., December 31, 1937.

125. Ibid., September 13, 1937.

126. Ibid., September 7, 1937.

127. Ibid., August 26, 1937.

128. Ibid., October 23, 1937.

129. Ibid., November 6, 1937.

130. Ibid., September 2, 1937.

131. Ibid., February 20, 1937.

132. Ibid., September 27, 1938.

133. Ibid., October 31, 1938.

134. Ibid., October 19, 1938.

135. Ibid., June 14, 1938.

136. Ibid., October 4, 1938.

137. Ibid., November 9, 1938.


Primary sources:

Chillicothe (Missouri) Constitution Tribune 21 May, 1928-9

DUX - 1932-38 Chillicothe Business College.

St. Joseph, Missouri: Combe Printers 1932-38;

The Gabbler - Chillicothe High School

Chillicothe, Missouri:

The Artcraft Printing Co., 1932 - 1938

United States Bureau Of The Census. Fifteenth Census Of The United States; 1930, Agriculture, Vol. I. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1932.

United States Bureau Of The Census. Fifteenth Census Of The United States; 1930, Population, Vol. III. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1932.

United States Bureau Of The Census. Fifteenth Census Of The United States; 1930, Agriculture, Vol. VI. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1932.

Secondary Sources:

Allen, Frederick Lewis. Since Yesterday.

New York: Harper and Row, 1939.

Davis, Clyde Brian. The Age Of Indiscretion.

New York: J. B. Lippicott Company, 1950

Meyer, Duane. The Heritage Of Missouri.

Hazelwood, Missouri: State Publishing Company, 1963.