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History of Livingston County
from The History of Caldwell and Livingston Counties, Missouri.  1886

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Geographical and Physical Features - Early History - Land Entries - Organization - Avalon - Situation - Miscellaneous - Historical Sketch of Avalon College - Biographical.

The township of Fairview comprises that portion of range 23 lying in Livingston county, south of Grand river, which includes all of township 56, and part of the south half of township 57. Grand river is its northern boundary, the Carroll county line its southern, the Grand River township line its eastern, and the Blue Mound line its western.

A most magnificently fine township is Fairview, with its rolling prairies and fertile table lands. In the extreme northern part, immediately on Grand river, the land is low and swampy, subject to overflow and abounding in lakes and ponds, at least in the rainy seasons. But the remainder of the township is fine. Taking it all over the land has recently been assessed for taxes at an average valuation of $7.85 per acre. Only two other townships in the county are assessed higher - Rich Hill and Chillicothe - both lying immediately on the railroads and another soon to be built, with good roads, short distances, and no stream to cross in going to market; while Fairview must go miles to a railroad, and either cross Grand river and its bottoms or go far south into Carroll county to do it, and besides has no prospect of an improvement in its condition.

Underlying the general surface of the township is the coal formation peculiar to this county, Linn and Caldwell. Near Avalon coal has been recently reached at a very moderate depth, and it may be obtained elsewhere with but little trouble and expense.


Fairview township was settled, though somewhat sparsely, at a very early date. The first entries of land up to 1840 were made, according to the records, as follows: -



Name. Description. Date.
Nathan Parsons sw. nw. and nw. sec. 1 June 12, 1837
David Parsons se. ne. and ne. se. sec. 2 June 18, 1838
James W. Cole e. nw. and w. ne. sec. 4 August 1, 1839
R. H. Jordan e. ne. & e. se. sec. 7, & w. nw. sec. 18 Oct. 22, 1839
A. J. Welch w. ne. and e. se. sec. 11 Nov. 27, 1838
John M. Johns w. se. sec. 11 and e. nw. sec. 36 May 3, 1838
Robt H. Jordan e. se. sec. 36 May 18, 1838
Name Description Date
Nathan Parsons frac. nw. sec. 36 June 12, 1837
Nathan Parsons e. ne. sec. 35 June 2, 1838
Wm. Hereford n. se. sec. 28 Aug. 17, 1839
Elisha Hereford frac. ne. & n. nw. sec. 28 & nw. sec. 27 June 27, 1839
James W. Cole nw. sw. sec. 28, and e. sw. sec. 33 August 1, 1839
Wm. Campbell w. sw. sec. 33 July 17, 1839

Only those lands entered by actual residents thereon, or by citizens of the county living near by, are noted. A few tracts, and only a few, were entered by speculators.

Dr. John Wolfskill was the pioneer physician in this township in the early days, his range of practice extending along the entire southern part of the county. Rev. Reuben Aldridge, a Methodist, was the first preacher.

Honesty and fair dealing characterized the transactions of the first settlers, but a prominent early settler in this township was caught in a bad scrape on one occasion, and his sharp practice was long remembered against him. Beeswax was a staple article of produce and a very common one. The woods were full of bee trees which were as often cut for the beeswax they yielded as for the honey they contained. The pioneer brought a lot of beeswax to market and sold it. The merchant examined one large cake and found snugly imbedded in its center a large stone of several pounds weight, which the settler had put in, probably for good measure! For years afterward he was known as "the man who put a rock in the wax."

The majority of the early settlers in this quarter resorted to Carrollton to trade, and some went to Brunswick. There was some trouble about crossing Grand river, and the expense of ferriage at Hereford's ferry was a consideration that kept many from Chillicothe. The toll was only 75 cents, but so scarce was the money that some chose to travel 25 or 30 miles to save even that sum.

This township was finally filled up with emigrants from the old "free" States, who came in directly after the close of the Civil War. They brought with them their ideas of enterprise, industry and careful management, and have put them to good purpose. Good roads, cross the township on nearly every section line. School-houses have been in existence for ten years on more or every alternate section in the lower Congressional township, and one school-house every two miles means an interest in educational matters beyond the average. The college at Avalon furnishes the means for a higher education, and receives a large patronage from home.

Cut off from immediate railroad facilities, and without a prospect of any in the near future, the township of Fairview has made remarkable advancement in the direction of development, and its race of propress is far from termination.

Fairview township was organized March 4, 1867, on petition of W. T. Fritch, J. L. Byrnsides and others. It was created out of Blue Mound and Grand River, and its. original boundaries are the same as at present.


The pleasant little village of Avalon is situated on the southeast quarter of section 14, about two miles east of the center of the main portion of Fairview township. It was established and laid out by David carpenter, November 12, 1869; E. B. Parks did the surveying. Upon the site there then stood a small log cabin, of the primitive pattern, with a mud-and-stick chimney, etc.

The town site (se. se. sec. 14 - 56 - 23) was entered by Wesley Scott, August 9, 1845. Mr. Scott came to Missouri from Jefferson county, O., in 1841. After living a year or more in Carroll, he came up to this county in about 1843. At first he located in the bottom, but the location was unhealthy, and he built a house (a log cabin, weatherboarded) upon the elevation whereon the town now stands, and which long bore the name of Scott's Mound. The house was built a short time prior to the date of the entry of the land. South of this, mainly, Mr. Scott opened a farm. He died here in 1852, and in 1869 his widow sold the land to David Carpenter, who, as before stated, laid out the town.

In 1845 the country all about Scott's Mound was unpeopled and virgin. Herds of deer bounded over the prairies, wolves skulked in the bottoms and sloughs and in the timber, coming forth at night to howl and prowl. In the fall and spring vast flocks of prairie chickens covered the country. South there were no settlers nearer than Stoke's Mound, in Carroll; three miles northeast lived Col. Monroe: north were a few settlers on Grand river. The nearest school-houses were at Fairland, three miles east, and "Crow Point," the same distance northwestward.

Avalon, somewhat like its ancient namesake in France, stands on the considerable eminence before noted. It commands a view of the surrounding country for 10 or 15 miles, and is a clear atmosphere for a greater distance. The spires of Chillicothe are plainly visible, and many of the buildings are discernible. In the warm seasons especially the vast picturesque landscapes of the surrounding country afford a most beautiful prospect. Although the site is elevated plenty of pure living water is reached at a moderate depth, and in former days numerous springs gushed out from the sides and at the base of the huge mound.

Immediately after its survey the town began to settle. In a few years there were numerous shops and business houses. In December, 1869, Avalon Academy was founded. In 1879 J. M. Bowman erected his steam flouring mill in the western part. The business directory in 1880 was about as follows: -

J. D. Roberts, Noble & Davis and McMullin & Co., general merchants; R. T. Miller, druggist and dealer in hardware, groceries, etc.; C. Hosford, harness and boot and shoemaker; Myers & Sparks, blacksmiths and wagonmakers; James Manley, blacksmith; S. H. Skinner, postmaster and dealer in notions; T. B. France, hotel; Jas. W. Maberry, and Andrew Marshall, physicians; J. W. Skinn, dentist; Avalon Academy, with J. C. Kephart as principal and professor of ancient languages, and A. W. Bishop as professor of mathematics and the natural sciences. At this time a local chronicler said: " We have no saloons and therefore no lawyers, and no need of any." In June, 1881, the academy was advanced to a college, and the same year the Aurora, a sprightly eight-page paper, was issued by Bigley & Miller. It is now ably edited and published by Robert Wilson, by whom it was purchased in 1882.


( By W. M. Ambrose A.B., Professor of Latin and Greek )

Whose mind first entertained and cherished the thought of establishing this institution of learning the writer is unable to determine. It is a creature of the Church of the United Brethren in Christ. The Missouri Mission Conference of this church, having co-operated with Lane University, Kansas, for some time, with very unsatisfactory results, voted in a regular session of the Conference, held at Fairview, Harrison county, Mo., in April, 1869, to establish an academy within her own bounds. At the same session a board of trustees was constituted, to which was intrusted the location and other preliminaries for the establishment of the academy. The board consisted of ministers and laymen, as follows: David Carpenter, J. F. Beauchamp, Rev. N. E. Gardner, E. S. Neff, Rev. Wm. Burns, Rev. E. W. Carpenter and Rev. Henry Siemiller.

The location was left to be decided by bids from those places desiring, the school. Pursuant to previous arrangements the board met at Bolton, Harrison county, Mo., to receive the various propositions and locate the school. Two places were about the only ones competing for the school, viz.: Fairview township, Livingston county, Mo., and Grant City, Worth county, Mo. The proposition of Livingston county being, as they considered, better, the Academy was, by a unanimous vote of the board, on September 18, 1869, located on " Scott's Mound, Fairview township, Livingston county, Mo."

At the time the school was located on this mound, there was an old building - double log and clap board, stone chimney, after the old style, huge and homely - standing about two blocks south from the present site of the college building. To the west of the old house was quite a grove of locust and cotton-wood trees, and north and northeast an old orchard; otherwise the mound was a prairie. When the Mormons were on their hegira westward their numerous wagon trains passed over this mound and the adjacent country. Future travel on the trail kept it open and subject to wash; hence some of the gullies which are plainly visible from the crest of the mound.

David Carpenter, now living just north one-half mile from the College, was the largest donor in this enterprise, giving ten acres of land for a campus, besides laying out 40 acres in town lots, giving some and selling others very cheaply, as an inducement for building up the town. He also contributed very liberally of his money for the success of the school. Rev. E. W. Carpenter, his son, and Rev. Wm. Beauchamp and others also labored very diligently and earnestly for its interests in the earlier days of its existence.

The brick were burned and the foundation was laid in 1870; but not until 1872 were the walls put up; and in the fall of 1873 the doors were open for the reception of students.

Rev. M. H. Ambrose, A. M., and Miss Lizzie Hanby, M. S., alumni of Otterbein University, Westerville, O., were the first teachers. The first term opened with 22 students and increased to 40 the next. Prof. Ambrose remained in charge of the school for four years - the first year at a salary of $800, the second at $900, and the third and fourth at what the tuition and interest on scholarships amounted to, he himself hiring assistants.

In the fall of 1877 Rev. J. H. Albert, A. M., of Western College, Ia., began his labors as principal. This was one of the most unsuccessful years of any as far as attendance was concerned, the number of students being very small. In June, 1878, Rev. C. J. Kephart, A. M., of Western College, Ia., was elected principal for the ensuing year. At a special meeting of the trustees, in October, 1878, one year was added to the curriculum of study. Articles of incorporation as a college were taken out in June, 1881, and the catalogue of the first collegiate year was issued in the same month. This increased its scope and field of activity very materially, and accordingly the number of students. Heretofore the number of students had scarcely exceeded 90 or 100, but the first collegiate year, proper, - 1881 and 1882 (though 1880 and 1881 was catalogued as collegiate, on account of having done full college work) - witnessed a great increase, the number for the year reaching 171.

Here I stop to describe the building. The dimensions are 65x52 feet, and up to the time reached in my history was but two stories in height, containing on the first floor four recitation rooms and on the second a chapel and signaller room used for various purposes - first, as a library room, afterwards as a society hall, and finally as a recitation room. The chapel was, and is yet, used for church services, and as an audience room for college entertainments, lectures, etc.

The architect's estimate of the cost was $9,500, but before the building was completed the cost swelled to $13,000.

To one taking a survey of the amount of room as above described, it will readily be seen that the room was not sufficient for the increased number of students. Accordingly at a called meeting of the Board of Trustees, in November, 1882, it was voted that a mansard story be added the ensuing summer. It was decided that the cost of said improvement should not exceed $3,000, and that work should not be commenced until enough money to inclose the building be in the treasury, and at that time there was not one dollar on hand. Rev. C. J. Kephart took the field to canvass far the needed money, meeting with entire success, for the money was quite readily secured. The contract was let to T. B. France for $2,800, and work was completed during the summer of 1883. This afforded room for halls for the two literary societies of the institution, and three commodious recitation rooms. The improvement was very largely due to the earnest and untiring efforts of Rev. C. J. Kephart, its most efficient president at that time, who has since disconnected himself with the institution.

The building now stands a three-story, containing on the first floor five recitation rooms, one cloak room and one laboratory room; on the second floor, a roomy chapel, or audience room and one recitation room; and on the third floor, two society halls (as aforesaid) and three recitation rooms, at a total cost (the building proper) of not less than $16,000.

The campus contains about six acres, about four acres of original ground having been sold. The whole property - building, campus, library, apparatus, etc. - is valued at about $20,000.

The first graduating class consisted of two, who took the degree of B. S. in 1882. The members were Mr. Fred Conger, one of Chillicothe's very genial and clever merchants, and Miss Mattie Gray, now Mrs. Mattie Edmonds - formerly of Rural Ridge, Pa., but now living in Oberlin, O. - whose husband, Rev. R. H. Edmonds (an alumnus of Avalon College), is pursuing a course in theology. In 1883 there were no graduates. In 1884 there were two, and in 1885 seven, and 1886 will furnish three. In June, 1884, the 11 graduates formed themselves into an Alumnal Association with H. M. Ambrose, president.

The institution contains two well organized and well managed literary societies, the Cleiomathean and the Philophronean; the former dates its origin from the opening of the Academy, the latter is of later origin.

The library consists of about five hundred volumes, many of which are very choice books - standard histories, biographies, poems, novels, government reports, etc. The endowment fund of the college is about $11,000, with about $8,000 productive. The curriculum of study is complete, embracing as much as is found in colleges generally. There are three courses of study, besides the courses in subordinate departments, viz.: The Classical, Scientific and Normal. The first embraces six years, two preparatory and four collegiate, requiring a critical study of the Latin and Greek through four years, and leading to the degree of Bachelor of Arts. The second embraces five years, one preparatory and four collegiate, differing from the classical in that only two years of Latin are required and none of Greek; this course leads to the degree of Bachelor of Science. The third embraces but three years, leaving out entirely the ancient languages and embracing the common English branches, sciences, mathematics, everything indeed that is required in a first-grade teacher's certificate in the State of Missouri. This course is designed, especially, for those desiring to fit themselves for teaching in the public schools.

Besides the courses first mentioned, courses in music, both instrumental and vocal; in art or crayon work, and in business or bookkeeping, and both plain and ornamental penmanship, are furnished those desiring them.

The present faculty consists of Rev. G. P. Macklin, A. M., president and professor of mental and moral sciences, who is an alumnus of Otterbein University, Westerville, O.; Mrs. L. A. Macklin, M. S., professor of the natural sciences and English, who is also an alumnus of the same Otterbein University; J. O. Rankin, M. S., A. B., professor of mathematics, who is a graduate in the scientific course of Lane University, Kan., and also in the classical course of Otterbein University; H. M. Ambrose, A. B., professor of the ancient languages and literature, who is a graduate of the class of 1884 of this college. The first three members of the faculty began their labors in September, 1885, while the fourth began in September, 1884.

In the subordinate departments of the college, Prof. Vint. C. Bates is principal of the musical department, Prof. D. E. Fair principal of the commercial, and Miss Amanda Timmons, principal of the art departments. The number of students of the present year ('85 and '86) is about 150.

The character of the school is thoroughly Christian. In addition to the intellectual development, earnest effort is put forth for the moral and religious development as well. The entire faculty are believers and professors of the religion of Christ. The school belongs to the United Brethren Church of the State of Missouri, and is controlled by a board elected by said church. While it is a church school yet its tenets are not by any means sectarian; and while the school aims to inculcate true moral principles and religion as taught in the Bible, yet, regarding denominational points of difference, it does not urge its peculiar views.


United Brethren.- At the close of the Civil War, a number of persons from Ohio, Illinois and Iowa located in Fairview township, within a few miles of the present site of Avalon. These were the families of D. Carpenter, J. H. Stubbs and Rev. W. F. Tricht; all were members of the church organization known as the United Brethren in Christ. Rev. Tricht organized several classes of this denomination among the people of Livingston and Carroll and from his planting the many branches of the United Brethren Church in the surrounding country have grown. Prominent as co-workers with Mr. Tricht in the upbuilding of the church have been the Carpenters, the Beauchamps and J. H. Stubbs. The church at Avalon was organized in 1870, by Rev. Wm. Beauchamp, at the house of A. Carpenter. Those composing the original class were D. Carpenter and wife and their two daughters, Jennie and Louisa; E. W. Carpenter, J. H. Stubbs, W. T. Tricht, John Shoe, E. Peters, S. Peters, A. Notestine, Mr. Burdick and their wives, together with some others. From the organization to the present the pastors have been Revs. Wm. Beauchamp, A. D. Thomas, A. W. Geeslin, J. T. Allaman, D. A. Beauchamp, J. Herbert, D. H. Bruner. J. L. Zumbro, C. J. Kephart, Mont Gronendyke and W. W. Coffman. Services are held in the chapel room of Avalon College. The present number of members is about 200. There are 110 scholars in the Sabbath-school, whose superintendent is Prof. G. P. Macklin.

Presbyterian Church. - The Presbyterian Church in Avalon was built in 1876. It is a frame and cost about $2,200. The church organization was erected in 1869. In the first organization there were but nine members; the deacons were Simeon Myers, David Shields, J. K. Sweeny and Ross Canning. Until 1876 services and the Sabbath-school were conducted in the Fairview school-house. The pastors have been Revs. John D. Beard, James Reed and John Hawkes. The church is out of debt, and is one of the strongest classes in this portion of the State; there are 60 members on the present roll of membership. The Sabbath-school contains 75 scholars; its superintendent is Jonathan Smith.

M. E. Church. - The M. E. Church, at Avalon, was organized as an appointment of the Bedford Mission in the spring of 1871, by T. B. Hales, pastor. The original members were J. H. Pultz; Sarah Pultz, Geo. W. Mills, Mary A. Mills, J. A. Crook, Emeline Crook, Susan Williams, J. E. Jackson, Eliza Jackson, H. H. Wilkinson, Nancy Wilkinson and Joseph Wolf. In 1873 Rev. Hales was succeeded as pastor by J. T. Stone. In 1874 D. S. Hayes was pastor, followed by Henry Hooper in 1875. S. Weston had charge for part of the year 1876, who was succeeded by W. H. Bassett, who remained for one year and a half. J. M. Pate was pastor for the years 1878 and 1879. W. H. Bassett was returned in 1880, and after an interim of few months was succeeded by Dr. D. B. Dorsey, of Chillicothe, whose pastorate closed February 26, 1882, after which the presiding elder of the district supplied the charge, James Kelso, who remained one year and who was succeeded by S. W. Jones in the spring of 1884. The present membership is 24, with a congregation of about 150. The only property held by the church is a parsonage in the southwest part of town, worth about $500. Services are held in the Presbyterian Church building.

Avalon Holiness Association. - This association first effected an organization October 11, 1881, with J. W. Scott as president and D. H. Rice, Wilson Kerns, H. D. Jordan, T. B. France, Carrie White, Ann Scott and Susan Stubbs as members. A permanent organization was made March 2, 1882, with G. H. Busby as president. The building of the association was erected in 1883 at a cost of $1,752. It is a frame and stands on College street. The pastors have been J. L. Zumbro, Geo. Moore and G. H. Busby. Present membership, 50; the Sabbath-school numbers about 50 scholars, and is superintended by G. W. Beauchamp.


Masonic. - Avalon Lodge No. 505, A. F. and A. M., was granted a dispensation November 8, 1881, under which it worked until October, 1882, when it received its charter. The first officers were W. P Munro, worshipful master; Joseph Jones and C. Roberts, wardens; F. E. Coffee, secretary; A. J. Barns, treasurer; Saml. D. Milay, chaplain. With these officers the following were also charter members: S. H. Patterson, W. H. H. Patterson, James Scott, William Shannon and Carr Campbell. The present officers are F. E. Coffee, worshipful master; Thos. F. Scott, J. F. Kern, wardens; T. F. O'Riley, secretary; Wm. B. Davis, treasurer: Carr Campbell, John Green, deacons; George B. Baxter, tyler. The lodge meets over Dr. Coffee's drug store, and its hall is nicely furnished. It is in good working order and there is a membership of 28.

Odd Fellows. - Avalon Lodge No. 428, I. O. O. F., was instituted July 27, 1882, by G. C. Brown, grand lecturer, and worked under a dispensation until May 18, 1883, when they received a charter. The charter members were J. S. Green, Jr., D. N. Morris, J. B. Tanner, John Hood and B. O. Webb. The first officers were J. S. Green, Jr., noble grand; D. H. Morris, vice grand; Frank E. Riley, secretary; Eli Harbaugh, treasurer. The officers at present are B. R. Moon, noble grand; N. R. McDonald, vice grand; J. M. Shinn, recording secretary; J. T. Line, permanent secretary; J. W. Price, treasurer. The present membership is 31. The lodge owns a well furnished lodge room and the order is flourishing and in good working condition,

United Workmen.- Avalon Lodge No. 319, A. O. U. W., was organized June 26, 1884, by P. P. Ellis, grand lecturer, with the following officers and charter members: W. S. Kern, past masterworkman; J. F. Kern, master workman; Chas. W. Kern, overseer; Chas. O. Scranton, G. F.; F. E. Coffee, recorder; F. M. Howard, guard; Asa L. Reams, J. W.; Geo. W. Mills, O. W., F. E. Coffee, medical examiner. The present membership is 15, with officers the same as on organization. The lodge meets in the Masonic Hall, at Avalon.

G. A. R. - Avalon Post No. 146, Grand Army of the Republic, was organized by Henry Bushnell, of Dawn, March 1, 1884. The charter members and first officers were S. H. Skinner, past commander; G. S. Reed, senior vice: Jacob Hartenstine, junior vice; A. W. Kapp, adjutant; Amos Sowers, officer of the day; F. E. Coffee, surgeon; W. H. Craig, quartermaster sergeant; J. W. Preston, chaplain; and N. Barnhart, John Zeigler, W. W. White, David Kerr, I. C. Haven, M. Sparks, G. B. Baxter, James Fullerton, Richard Quirk, C. D. Poe, F. M. Snyder, G. W. Mills, J. C. Preston, H. W. Tobias and A. L. Bowen. The present membership is 29. The post is in a nourishing condition at present. It meets in the Odd Fellows' hall and it present officers are G. S. Reed, commander; H. W. Tobias and J. W. Preston, vice commanders; S. H. Skinner, adjutant.


This church is located two miles south of Avalon, in Fairview township, and was originally organized with about thirty members, prominent among whom were Daniel Shores, W. Rousey, D. A. Creason, Wm. Hooten, and Obe Shipp. The church house, a frame, was built in 1880, at a cost of $1,300. At present there are about forty members, and a Sabbath school, of which Joseph Creason is superintendent, has about the same number of scholars. Elders Simpson, Martin, Gaunt, and Knox have served the church as pastors.



(Professor of Ancient Languages in Avalon College, Avalon)

There are few men better known in this part of Livingston county and the surrounding country than the father of the subject of this Sketch, Lewis D. Ambrose, and it is eminently proper that an outline a brief of his life work be given proper mention in this connection. Lewis D. Ambrose was born in Highland county, O., May 23, 1817. His grandparents were natives of Germany and soon after the close of the Revolutionary War came to America, locating in Berkeley county, W. Va., where they reared a large family of children. It was there that Lewis' father, William Ambrose, was born, reared and married, his wife being Miss Susanna Crum, of the same locality. In 1813, they moved to Highland county, O., cleared and improved a heavily timbered tract of land and there passed the remaining years of their lives, leaving at their death nine children, Lewis being the youngest. They were earnest Christian people, and for years Mr. A. was an itinerant minister in the U. B. Church. The early life of Lewis D. Ambrose was as uneventful as that of most farmers' boys and the only education he could secure was what the early subscription schools afforded at the time. When 13 years old he became converted and connected himself with the U. B. Church, and when only 20 years and he began ministerial labors for that organization. January 17, 1839, Miss Nancy Leib became his wife, her birth having occurred in Fairfield county, O., April 8, 1819. In 1855 Mr. A. moved to Logan county, Ill., continuing farming and the work of the ministry for 19 years, when he sold out and came to his present location in this county and township. Since then he has for the most part given his attention to agricultural pursuits, though his earnest and laborious efforts in local ministerial work and in behalf of the Avalon College, in which he has always taken such a warm, active interest, have occupied him not a little of the time. He has labored zealously for the success of both school and church, and it is an acknowledged fact that much of the prosperous condition of each of these bodies at present is due to Mr. Ambrose. The following children have been born to himself and wife: Susan C., Catherine, Daniel L., a journalist of Mt. Pulaski, Ill.; William H., an attorney of Delavan, Ill., Matthias H., a self-educated man and a graduate of Otterbein University, of Ohio, and the first principal of Avalon College; Samuel W., a merchant at Avalon; Mary E., the only living daughter, wife of A. W. Jones, M. D., of Westerville, O.; Jacob G., a farmer and carpenter of Mitchell county, Kan.; David E., also a graduate of Otterbein University and now a teacher in Sangamon county, Ill.; George F., a dentist of Garnett Kan., and Hugh M., referred to below. Three of these sons served in the late war, Daniel L., William H. and Matthias H., who were members of the 7th Illinois volunteer infantry; Daniel held a lieutenant's commission in Co. H. Hugh M. Ambrose is numbered among the representative men of Livingston county. He attended Avalon College, where his course was marked with unusual brilliancy, and subsequently he was called to the chair of Ancient Languages in that institution, a position he has since filled with universal satisfaction and credit. Thorough and proficient in all that he does, those who are favored with his instruction can not but he benefited. He has also been brought into official prominence in this county through his election to the position of county surveyor and at present he is the incumbent of that office. His life work has indeed been of great good, but the future holds out for him still greater and brighter prospects.


(General Merchant, Avalon)

Few young men have been as successful in material affairs and in the accumulation of comfortable means as has Mr. Baugh, until recently one of Avalon's representative business men, but still one of her most respected citizens. He first commenced mercantile business when 22 years of age at Bedford, Mo., and was thus occupied for about 4 years, then for a year not being actively interested in that calling. In 1881, however, he resumed merchandising, this time opening out an establishment at Avalon and up to the present spring (1886) he carried on an excellent house, but at that time he disposed of his interests in the store to Frank E. Riley, who succeeds to the encouraging trade and unquestioned integrity of his predecessor. Mr. Baugh while in business had built up a large custom and by all was held in the highest confidence. He has been among the most successful business men ever in Avalon, and one of its best and most progressive citizens. Stephen W. Baugh was born April 2, 1853, in Howard county, Mo., one of four children in the family of Thomas J. and Elizabeth (Green) Baugh, his parents, the former a native of Bowling Green, Ky., and the latter of Howard county, Mo. Mr. Baugh had come to that locality when a young man and there met and afterwards married Miss Green. They always made this home in Howard county save for five years while residing in Grand River township, Livingston county. Mr. B. died in 1866 and his worthy wife in 1884, leaving three sons and a daughter: James H., a merchant of Bedford, mentioned elsewhere in this work; Fannie, married and in Howard county, and George E., residing in Trinidad, Col. The senior Baugh was always engaged in agricultural pursuits and to that calling Stephen W., the subject of this biography, was reared, though in growing up he enjoyed the privileges of the common district schools. About 1875, as intimated, his mercantile career was commenced, and his time from that period to the present has been noted. He is now one of the directors of the Bank of Hale City, and at Avalon he owns a beautiful home, besides 40 acres of land in Fairview township and a 160-acre tract in Pawnee county, Neb. For the most part what he now has is the result of his own exertion, and towards the building up of Avalon he has done not a little. Mr. Baugh's wife was formerly Miss Ollie Hemry, to whom he was married November 27, 1884. She was born near Polo, Caldwell county, April 12, 1857, and is the daughter of Rezin Hemry, an early settler of that county. Mr. B. is independent in his political views, never having aspired to public prominence.


(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Section 16, Post-office, Avalon).

In tracing the ancestry of Mr. Beauchamp it is found that he comes of a most distinguished family. Some of its ancestors went with William the Conqueror from Normandy to England, and it is a fact worthy of mention that the Earl of Warwick was a Beauchamp and belonged to the same family whose blood now runs in the veins of the subject of this sketch. The first mention of the Beauchamp family in the United States is in connection with the early settlement of Delaware, many years prior to the Revolutionary War. John Beauchamp, George's grandfather, was a participant in the War of 1812. George's parents were David and Dorothy (Juvenille) Beauchamp, the former a native of Delaware, and the latter of New York. Their marriage occurred in Ohio, and to them 14 children were born, eight of whom were boys. In 1828 they moved to Perrysville, Ind., and there passed their, remaining days. David Beauchamp was a local minister in the M. K. Church, and, as a pioneer preacher, was consecrated to his cause and calling. George W. was born in Vermilion county, Ind., April 17, 1843, and has proven himself a worthy son of a noble father. As the youngest child in the family he was brought up on a farm, supplementing hie common school education by a training at the academy of Perrysville, and after leaving that institution he entered upon his career as a soldier, one destined to be of severe, active and self-sacrificing service. August 18, 1862, he enlisted in Co. K, 6th Indiana cavalry, joined his regiment at Lexington, and from that time on took part in numerous engagements, want of space forbidding our following him through all these battles. Among others in which he participated night he mentioned that of Richmond, where he was wounded and captured and kept two months, having been paroled; later on he went home on a two month's furlough, returned to the regiment, was exchanged, and then marched to Mu1draugh's Hill, Ky., where an engagement was had with Morgan's men. He was also in the battles at Greeneville, London and Knoxville, and after joining Sherman's forces remained with them until the capture of Atlanta, when he was connected with Thomas' command; and following this he was in the encounters at Franklin and Nashville, subsequently serving on detached duty until the close of the war at Knoxville. Returning home after a brilliant and successful military experience, Mr. Beauchamp remained there until moving to Springfield, Mo., in 1869, but shortly he went to Worth county and the two succeeding years devoted himself to farming. He then came to this county, and two years later took up his residence in Greene county, 18 months thereafter again finding him a resident of Livingston county. This has since been his home, and he now owns a valuable place of 180 acres well improved. Mr. B. was married in 1867 to Miss Mary A. Piper, daughter of Peter Piper, of Indiana originally, but now of Greene county, Mo. They have six children: Harry L. was accidentally killed when five years of age, and those living are James W., Frederick Grant, Leslie Ellwin, Willie Roscoe and Andrey Edny. Politically Mr. Beauchamp is a Republican, and at this time he is township collector. For a number of years he was connected with the U. B. Church at Avalon, and us such took prominent part in the building up of Avalon College, to which he contributed liberally. But in 1881 he became a member of the Holiness Association, with which he has since been connected. He was influential in the organization of this religious body at Avalon, and has since done much to sustain its growth and prosperity. He has been president of the Association, and is now superintendent of the Sabbath-school.


(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Section 26, Post Office, Avalon)

An effort to trace the genealogy of the subject of this sketch reveals the fact that his father, Elijah G. Browning, was the son of Caleb and he of Edmund Browning, the father of the latter having emigrated from England to America, locating in Virginia, about the year 1700. Caleb Browning was an active participant in all of the struggles of the Revolutionary War and witnessed the final surrender of the British at Yorktown. He was killed in 1780 by a falling limb from a tree. Elijah G. Browning was a Virginian by birth but in an early day went to Kentucky. He was engaged in the Indian wars against Tecumseh and Proctor and participated in the battle of the Thames when hundreds of his brave countrymen were slain by the unerring bullets and arrows of the savages. January 23, 1815, he was married at Winchester, Ky., to Miss Maria Peterson, who bore him six children: John T. died at Albuquerque, N. M., while in the Mexican War; Maria and Susan are also deceased; Samuel and James were occupied in the Mormon difficulties in Caldwell and Livingston counties and now reside upon the old home farm in Howard county. Elijah Browning died June 1, 1840, his wife surviving until September 23, 1865, when her spirit returned to its Maker. Robert H. Browning, the subject of this sketch, first saw the light in Clark county, Ky., where he was born July 27, 1821, and from a very early period he commenced to acquaint himself with the duties about the home farm. He attended only a few months at a winter term of a subscription school, walking the entire distance of six miles daily, but it is perhaps needless to say such opportunities as he did receive were appreciated. When 25 years old he enlisted under Col. Doniphan in Co. G, 1st regiment, and started to do service in the Mexican War; and while enroute to Ft. Leavenworth to be mustered in he met and became acquainted with " Blue Jacket," the celebrated Indian chief who fought against Gen. Wayne. He made the long journey to Santa Fe and further south on the Rio Grande, taking part in a campaign against the Navajo Indians. Mr. Browning returned home by way of the plains after an absence of about a year and later on he commenced his endeavor to secure an honest livelihood, devoting the greater part of his time to farming and the raising of large crops of tobacco, which latter he sold for from $1.50 to $3.00 per hundred. In 1855 he came to this county and has since resided here; at this time his home farm in Fairview township contains 440 acres and besides this he has 92 acres in Carroll county, all well improved. His place in this township is a model of neatness and everything is arranged in a manner convenient and essential to the conduct of a superior farm. He raises a fine grade of Short-horn cattle. Long ago Mr. Browning gained the reputation of being one of the substantial, influential citizens of this vicinity and time has only served to strengthen this regard. Though a Democrat in his political preferences, he is rather retired in his movements towards politics. July 1, 1855, he was married to Mrs. Amanda Taylor, who died in 1857, leaving an infant child, now deceased. February 22, 1859, Miss Eliza Alexander became his wife and she has borne the following children: Amanda and an infant now deceased, and Susan, Robert H., Ella, Katherine, Lizzie, Alexander and Samuel, all at home. Miss Amanda was just merging into young womanhood at the time of her death, and the loss thus sustained was keenly felt.


(Retired, Post-office, Avalon)

In preparing a biographical conspectus of Livingston county to accompany the general history of the county it would indeed be a grievous oversight not to include a sketch of the life of the esteemed and deservedly popular citizen whose name stands at the head of this brief statement of facts. Mr. Carpenter is a plain, unassuming man, of much worth, who has since his location here been usefully and influentially identified with the county's interests, principally in the capacity of an agriculturist. He was born in Ulster county, N. Y., August 17, 1813, his grandfather, who was an Englishman by birth, having come to America shortly before the Revolutionary War, locating at Fishkill Landing on the Hudson river. He took an active part in the war between the mother country and the colonies, on the side of the latter, and was killed in a battle near New York city, leaving three sons and one daughter, Henry Carpenter, the father of David, being one of the children. He (Henry),married Phoebe Underhill, of New York, and they made their home in the Empire State for a long time, the father being engaged in teaching some nine years in Ulster county.

In 1816, going to Huron county, O., he became the first settler in Greenwich township, that county, and three years after settling there he died, leaving besides his wife four children in somewhat limited circumstances. Two years following his death his widow died and the children became scattered, obtaining homes wherever they could. David was but seven years old at this time and for several years he was thrown upon the world to be cared for by those who would take him. Many were the privations and hardships which this young boy encountered but amidst them all he never once lost heart. His chances for receiving an education were of course limited. Finally a home was found with a Quaker, named Benjamin Washburn, with whom David remained five years, receiving from $60 to $120 annually for his services. At the end of the five years he had accumulated enough to enter 280 acres of land in Williams county, O. October 8, 1835, he was married in Huron county, O., to Miss Julia A. Washburn, whose birth occurred in Sullivan county, N. Y., November 11, 1812. The winter following his marriage Mr. Carpenter commenced the improvement of the place which had become his, erected a rude log cabin, and for many years attended to the cultivation of his farm, securing satisfactory results from his agriculture and stock raising efforts. In 1865 he sold out and moved to Keokuk county, Ia., but in the fall of 1867 he came to this county, which has since been his home. His first purchase of land here was of 400 acres, but to this he has since added until at this time he has in connection with his son 880 acres in this county and 180 acres of valuable coal land in Putnam county. But Mr. Carpenter has not only done much for himself but for others, and towards the building up of his adopted home. He it was who laid out the village of Avalon and in numerous ways he has contributed to the growth and prosperity of the place. He was one of the leaders, if, indeed, not the principal one, in founding and building up Avalon College, and to no other one person is due so much credit for sustaining this institution as to Mr. C., for he has given over $4,000, besides aiding in other directions. These facts are not mentioned as meaningless words of empty praise, but to show in a slight way the charity and public-spiritedness which have ever characterized his actions. His own way in life having been a difficult one, he has realized the blessings which arise by helping others over stony places. Himself and wife have been upright, consistent members in the U. B. Church for forty-five years. Eight children have been born to them: Edmund, Louisa, Sarah J., Ann M., Mary E., Alice, Stephen and William H. now living, besides, one, Edmund, an eminent minister in the U. B. Church, who died February 1, 1881. He was a member of the 100th Ohio volunteer infantry during the late war and lost his health in the service. Mr. Carpenter has always voted in opposition to the Democratic party, and has done much to advance all measures of public policy, having tilled various positions of trust and responsibility. One of his sons, William H., referred to above, is a prominent and leading farmer of Fairview township, and a man of substantial respect. His wife was formerly Miss Alice Spears, a daughter of J. M. Spears, referred to elsewhere in this volume.


(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Section 32, Post-office, Asper)

During the late war many indignities were suffered and undergone by those in this section of the State who were not engaged in active service, and as bearing out the old proverb, "All is fair in love and war," many acts of lawlessness were committed that could but be condemned by the better element. Among those who were thus treated was Mr. Condron, and a glance at the following facts will show that he certainly has had occasion to remember that strife with feelings anything but pleasant. He was born in Pike county, Mo., March 1, 1841, of the union of Peter and Elizabeth (Delaney) Condron, the former a native of Ireland, but the latter originally from Pennsylvania. Peter Condon was a farmer by calling and in 1829 emigrated to America, locating in the keystone State, where he was married. In 1887 he came to Pike county, Mo., and from there to Livingston county, where his family were principally reared. Ten children were born to himself and wife, and of these Peter, of this sketch, was the third child; James, the second, took an active part in the War of the Rebellion; John is in North Carolina, William is in Carroll county, Mo., and six sisters are married and living in different localities. Peter Condron divided his youth between farm work and attendance at the common schools, though his opportunities for learning were not very favorable. When 20 years of age he joined the Confederate forces, under Gen. Slack, and took part in the battles of Carthage, Drywood, Wilson's Creek and Lexington. In December, 1861, he returned home and took no further part in the war, except against his desires. He had taken the oath of allegiance and one day while at home, sick in bed, six or seven men came to the house, and to obtain certain information placed a rope about his neck as though to hang him, but the information sought was not given. On another occasion three men, well known in this community, deliberately robbed him of an overcoat, representing that they had orders to take extra coats and send them to Union troops. At many different times his cattle, horses, etc., were pressed into service, without compensation, though vouchers were of course promised him, but the promises did not amount to much. In truth Mr. Condron seems to have suffered more than his share of losses during the war. However, he has recovered from all this and at the present time he is in a prosperous and successful condition. His landed estate embraces 900 acres, improved in a manner above criticism. His stock of all kinds (the cattle being principally Polled-Angus and Short-horns) is among the best to be found in any community, and in all his operations he has proved of great benefit to the people of this county. Progressive and liberal in his dealings, he has become highly respected. In October, 1865, Mr. Condron was married to Mrs. Jemima Rife, daughter of Thomas Suggs, and widow of David Rife; the latter was a member of Marmaduke's command during the war and was killed at Springfield in 1863. Mr. and Mrs. Condron have three children: James L., Susan J. and Samuel M.


(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Section 24, Post-office, Avalon).

Mr. Craig not only has the reputation of being an excellent farmer, but his career as a citizen has shown him to be public-spirited and enterprising, and of advanced ideas regarding farming operations. February 28, 1841, he was born in Indiana county, Pa., the youngest of two children resulting from the marriage of his parents, John and Margaret (Frazer) Craig, themselves natives of the Keystone State. In 1858 they removed to Knox county, Ill., and made that their home until going to Henry county, where their death occurred, the father dying in 1873 and his companion the year following. Jacob F. was the name of the brother of William H. He (Jacob) became a member of Co. G, 89th Illinois, during the late Civil War and was in the Army of the Tennessee under Gen. Sherman, serving faithfully in all the terrific battles of that campaign until his death at Rocky Face Ridge, Ga., May 9, 1864. William H., he whose name heads this memoir, enlisted in 1861, in Co. B, 37th Illinois volunteer infantry, and was first stationed at Camp Webb, near Chicago, where he remained a short time, going thence to St. Louis, and afterwards to Boonville, then to Sedalia, from there to Springfield, where an engagement took place; during the winter the regiment camped at Syracuse. The spring campaign was opened by a move on Springfield and driving Price into Arkansas, skirmishing occurring nearly every day; streams to be crossed were swollen far above their banks and many privations were undergone. Returning home they were overtaken by Price and on March 7th and 8th the disastrous battle of Pea Ridge was fought. The regiment remained at Cassville to recuperate until June, were then sent to Springfield and from July to November saw almost continual duty. Mr. Craig was obliged to leave the regiment at Camp Lyons, Ark., having lost the use of his arm from white swelling, and after a tedious journey, by means of rough conveyances, he finally reached St. Louis and was honorably discharged January 7, 1863. Returning home to Knox county, Ill., he remained at home about a year, regaining his lost health, and then he engaged in farming, continuing it there until selling out and going to Henry county, where he purchased another place and attended to its cultivation. In 1878 he settled in this county and has remained here since that time, closely interested in its agricultural affairs. He owns 240 acres of land a half mile east of Avalon, upon which are neat and convenient improvements. Mr. Craig was married February 25, 1868, to Mary A. Roberts, a native of Pennsylvania, who has borne him three children: Jacob H., Katie and Robert B. Mr. C. is a member of Avalon Post No. 146, G. A. R.


(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Section 9, Post-office, Cavendish)

This progressive and representative young agriculturist came originally from Pennsylvania, and has displayed in his farming operations in this vicinity the principles of modern ideas and customs so characteristic of men of Eastern nativity. His birth occurred in Montgomery county, of the Keystone State, January 1, 1847, his parents being John and Mary (Keiler) Hartenstine; and for several generations his paternal ancestors have been natives of this State. The family came originally from Germany, and Mrs. H.'s father emigrated directly from there to America. John Hartenstine, in connection with his farming duties, followed his trade as stonemason to some extent. When but 18 years old he entered the American army and served until the close of the War of 1812. Hie death occurred in 1858, but his widow still survives. By his first marriage to Miss Hannah Gilbert he had four children, and by the last one there were six boys and two girls, of whom Jacob was the oldest. Four of the sons were in the Union army during the war; Peter was in Co. H, 175th Pennsylvania volunteers, as was also Valentine, and they took part in all the battles of the Kentucky and Tennessee campaign; Jacob and Eli entered Co. C, 3d Pennsylvania cavalry, though the latter was but 18 years of age, and had to run away from home to join the army. They took part in the Pennsylvania campaign under McClelland, and were at Williamsburg, Seven Days fight at Richmond, in which they were continuously in the saddle day and night with but little refreshment; after this they were engaged at South Mountain and Antietam, and here nearly lost their lives. In company with each other these brothers shared the fortunes and hardships of the Army of the Potomac, including the engagement at Gettysburg. Eli Hartenstine laid down his life on his country's altar in 1863, being killed near Warrenton, Va.; he was a private, but Jacob was quartermaster-sergeant. Both were excellent cavalrymen, and by their comrades were considered as among the bravest and most reliable men of the company. After returning from the battlefield Mr. H. located near his old home in Pennsylvania and embarked in the hotel business. In 1870 he came to the county and entered upon a career which has since been devoted to agricultural pursuits. Four miles northwest of Avalon is located his well improved and well regulated farm of 150 acres, and during his 15 years' residence here he has become well and favorably known. Mr. Hartenstine was married in January, 1871, to Miss Susan Tobias, daughter of Henry W. Tobias, a resident of Fairview township. By this marriage there were two children, Montgomery and Roy, both at home. Mr. Hartenstine is a member of the I. O. O. F., and has been connected with the order for a number of years. He also belongs to Avalon Post No. 146, G. A. R., and was formerly connected with the Knights of Pythias. Though a Democrat in preference Mr. Hartenetine supports men and measures rather than party.


(Farmer, Section 10, Post-office, Avalon)

Those who are favored with an acquaintance with Mr. Heinbach recognize in him those characteristics which stamp him an honest, whole-souled, practical and enterprising agriculturist. Perhaps these principles have been born in him but he nevertheless deserves credit for possessing them to such a degree. Of German nativity, he was born in Prussia, May 16, 1824, his parents also being of that country. His father, John Heinbach, was married after reaching maturity to Miss Eve Kuhn, of the same place. Until the age of 28 years Fred. Heinbach remained in the vicinity of his birthplace, occupied for a considerable portion of the time in mining. In 1852 he came to the United States and subsequently lived in various places, and after his arrival in America he was married in Quincy, Ill., in 1854, to Miss Margaret Dietrech, also of German birth. In 1860 Mr. H. made a settlement in Madison county, Mo., living there for ten years, after which be came to this county and purchased a farm. At this time he owns 220 acres of land, well improved, upon which are good buildings, residence, barn, etc., and in fact everything about the place indicates one never-failing peculiarity of the German people - thrift. To Mr. and Mrs. Heinbnch twelve children have been born, nine of whom are living: Annie, now Mrs. Joseph Pfaff, of this county; Peter, in California; Mary, Lizzie, now Mrs. James Hogeboon, of Denver: Maggie, Cristian, John, Sophia and William. Three daughters are deceased. Mr. Heinbach is most reliable in all his transactions and those who visit him at his home always receive a most cordial welcome.


(Farmer, Section 4, Post-office, Avalon)

Mr. Howard has only been located in Livingston county since 1881, but five years is ample time to note the characteristics of a man whose attention is closely devoted to his chosen calling and whose management of a farm, if he be a farmer, indicates careful thought and study and a thorough acquaintance with its every detail. At the present time he is numbered among the industrious, well respected citizens of Fairview township, and his past career is doubtless but an indication of what his future will be. Born in Colebrook, Conn., May 30, 1823, he was the son of Freeman and Eunice Howard, formerly Risley, both natives of Connecticut and of English descent. The father was a son of Col. Howard, of Revolutionary fame, who bore an active part in the struggle for independence. Freeman Howard served as a soldier in the War of 1812 and after hostilities had ceased he followed his trade of carriage making in Hartford, Corm., for a number of years. Subsequently he went to New York, and was very successful in the manufacture of type and upon going to Aurora, Ohio, in 1829, he embarked in the manufacture of rakes. He seemed to be possessed of great mechanical genius and had a love for mechanical pursuits. Before his death in 1867, at Chardon, O., he had been engaged in milling, wool carding, etc. Mrs. Howard died in 1867, leaving five children, of whom three are living: Chester, of Aurora, O.; Celestia, wife of Orren Benjamin, of Ohio; and Julius F., the subject of this sketch. He was reared as a miller end followed that occupation until about his twenty-first year and for the succeeding 14 years his attention was directed towards the channels of agricultural life, at Ashtabula. Going to Charon, O., he remained a resident of that place up to the time of his settlement in this county in 1881, and it was then that his present farm was purchased. This contains 320 acres of valuable land, pleasantly located four miles and a half from Avalon, and so improved as to constitute one of the most comfortable places in that portion of the county. His competence has been gained through his own unaided efforts and he has succeeded in accumulating considerable share of this world's goods. All movements looking to the development and building up of the countyy are warmly aided and seconded by him. He is a prominent member of the Masonic Order. In September, 1844, Mr. Howard was married to Miss Cordelia Egghson, daughter of Martin Egghson, of Ohio, one of the oldest settlers of the Buckeye State. Five children are now in their family: Erwin J., a wealthy and influential business man of Erie, Pa.; Mariah E., wife of Eugene Witter, of this township; Frank P., in the insurance business at Chardon, O.; Fred M. is engaged in the accidental insurance business on the Wabash; Willie is at home.


(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Section 1, Post-office, Avalon).

The subject of this sketch was born in Leicestershire, England, January 20, 1820. His father, Thomas Jones, a native of Wales, subsequently moved from there to Leicestershire where he afterwards married Miss Mary Cave, of that place. Thomas Jones was a stone-mason by trade; to himself and wife seven children were born, of whom Joseph is the second son now living. In 1827 the family emigrated to the United States and settled in Maryland, there remaining until 1836, wheat they came to Missouri and took up their location in Livingston county. Mrs. Jones died here in 1846, and the following year the fathers death also occurred. They are well remembered by the earlier settlers in the county, and were numbered among those who helped to open the way for civilization in this community. Of the children who grew to maturity besides Joseph, Charlotte married John Johnson, but is now deceased; William is a resident of St, Louis; Caroline became the wife of Samuel Broadly; Frederick is located at Hale City, Mo., and Henry is now deceased, having died at Brunswick. After the family had settled in this county Joseph Jones continued to live here, actively employing himself until 1845, when he went to Wisconsin, working in the lead mines there for two years. Then he returned and stayed here up to the time of the breaking out of the gold excitement on the Pacific coast, when with many others whose minds were captivated with the glowing accounts of the fortunes so easily to be obtained, he went to California and remained three years, spending the time in working in the mining districts. Unlike the greater number of gold seekers Mr. Jones met with satisfactory success, although on returning to Livingston county he was perfectly willing to devote himself to some other channel of active, every-day life. It was in 1853 that he came back, and the next year he settled upon the place where he now occupies. His original tract of land contained but 40 acres that he entered, but to this numerous tracts have been added from time to time until he now owns 270 acres, and it goes without saying that he is classed among the most substantial agriculturists of the entire county. Everything he does is carried on in a thorough and complete manner, and while his place may not be as large as many others that could be mentioned, he wisely considers labor well done on a smaller farm far more resultful of good than the same amount expended on a place twice the size. Too much cannot be said concerning his honor and integrity. His word anywhere is esteemed as good as his bond, and while in manner he is quiet and unostentatious, he has drawn around him the wide circle of true friends whose deep regard is the best evidence of his popularity. In June, 1847, Mr. Jones was married to Miss Elizabeth D. Ballew, originally from North Carolina. They have two children: Mary Ellen, wife of George Wright, and Puss, now Mrs. Walker Wilkinson, of Avalon. Mr. Jones and hie estimable wife are members of the M. E. Church South.


(Farmer and Proprietor of Creamery, Avalon)

The parents of William S. Kern, Joseph and Elizabeth Kern, whose maiden name was Smith, were both natives of Pennsylvania, but in 1832 emigrated to Virginia, where their large family of eleven children principally grew up. The father was a hatter by trade and for some seven years he followed that occupation in the Old Dominion, then moving to Adams county, Ill., where the same calling was resumed up to the fall of 1856. He was a zealous, consistent Christian and for 34 years before his death he was a prominent member in the M. E. Church. His worthy and esteemed companion still survives and is also connected with the same church, which she joined in childhood. She is now 86 years of age and a resident of Adams county, Ill., living with her daughter, and though of advanced age bids fair to see many more years of usefulness. The children in the family were as follows: John, died in Missouri in 1876; Mary, married W. A. Shields, of Adams county, Ill., and died in 1885, a year after the death of her husband; Susannah is now Mrs. J. Leech, of Adams county, Ill.; Charles is a farmer in that State; Catherine is the wife of Wesley Strickle, of the same county, and Jacob also resides there; Joseph died in March, 1884; Elizabeth married S. McGill, of Illinois; Virginia and Thomas D. died when small. William S. Kern, the subject of this sketch, owes his nativity to Westmoreland county, where he was born May 1, 1836. He accompanied his parents on their various moves as mentioned, growing up to a thorough agricultural acquaintance, and also being favored with good common school advantages. In 1866, he came to Missouri, and has since remained here and his course has been such an upright, consistent one, devoid of anything but the most honorable transactions, that the respect and esteem of all who enjoy his acquaintance are readily granted him. Three miles north of Avalon is situated his comfortable, valuable place, 270 acres in extent, and well improved. The stock to be found here includes mules, cattle and hogs, and this branch of agricultural affairs is one in which he is meeting with good success. Besides his farm interests Mr. Kern is the owner of a creamery at Avalon, which he operates, and in this he is having a substantial and increasing patronage. He has a large and fertile territory from which to gather his cream and this certainly is sufficient to insure his creamery permanent and satisfactory success. Mr. Kern was married in November, 1860, to Miss Effie Hoyt, daughter of Caleb R. Hoyt, of Illinois. Eight children have blessed this marriage: George W. died in infancy, and Franklin, Harry M., Elmer C., Minnie E., Clara E., Charles and Fred Ray are at home. Mr. K. is a member of the A. O. U. W. For 30 years he has been an earnest, pious Christian, having been connected with the North M. E. Church until 1883, when he became a member of the Holiness organization, to which his wife also belongs. His everyday life is a living example of the precepts which he teaches and in which he so thoroughly believes. The confidence of every one is reposed in him to an unlimited extent.


(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Section 13, Post-office, Avalon).

Now in his sixty-eighth year, Mr. McCleery has spent a life of energetic, active industry and one not unrewarded with substantial results. His birth occurred February 9, 1819, in Crawford county, Pa., his parents being Thomas and Margaret McCleery, nee Wilson, the father a native of Scotland and the mother originally from the north of Ireland. They emigrated to the United States in 1817, locating in Crawford county, and there the father was engaged in farming until his removal to Mercer county, Pa., where he died in 1857 at the ripe old age of 87 years; his wife was about 65 years old at the time of her death some three years previous. Eight children were in their family: Thomas, of New Wilmington, Pa., who has been an elder in the Presbyterian Church for 50 years; he has a son William, who was a first lieutenant in the Army of the Potomac all during the war; William of Oakland, Cal., now retired; Nancy, widow of Henry Ewing, of Pennsylvania; Joseph, a teacher and surveyor of Mercer country, Pa.; Elizabeth, living at New Hamburg, Pa.; Alexander died when 17 years old; James enlisted in Co. H, 23d Illinois volunteers, during the war and saw much active service; in the Missouri campaign he was taken prisoner by Mulligan's men and subsequently he was transferred to the Army of the Potomac with which he served until being killed near Medley, Md., January 30, 1864; Wilson, the youngest son, died at the age of 23. Solomon McCleery after growing up on a farm and receiving the privileges of a good common school education enlisted in Co. C, 45th Illinois volunteers, and, going South, he was engaged in the hard fought battles of Fort Donelson and Fort Henry, Corinth, Jackson, etc. Many were the hardships he endured and finally he was unfitted for active service by reason of sickness, and consequently was honorably discharged January 23, 1862, after which he returned to his old home in Knox county, Ill., where he remained until 1869. In that year he came to Livingston county, Mo., and took up his location at his present place. Here he has 80 acres of valuable land, just east of Avalon, one of the most desirable homesteads to be found anywhere. The appearance of the farm gives evidence of the liberality and progressiveness of its owner, for in all things tending to public improvement Mr. Cleery has at all times freely given his support. His children have each enjoyed good educational advantages and on starting in life have been presented with substantial gifts. They have all done honor to the name they bear. Mr. McC. was married January 8, 1846, to Miss Elizabeth Y. Green, and they have the following children: Margaret, wife of J. N. Kennedy, of Grand River township, this county; William J., of Jericho, Cedar county, Mo.; Jackson W. died at Chillicothe July 22, 1882; Charles died in infancy; Ninittie V., now Mrs. Richard K. Jackson, of Chillicothe, and Nellie E., at home.


(Farmer, Section 2, Post-office, Avalon).

The farm which Mr. McKinney now owns and manages contains 80 acres, a place well improved and under good cultivation, situated in section 2. It is well adapted to the purposes of general farming and Mr. McKinney thoroughly knows how to appropriate the advantages which nature bestowed upon the place. He is now in his thirty-eighth year, having been born December 19, 1848, in Montgomery county, Tenn. His father, James H. McKinney, was born and reared in that State and early in the history of Livingston county he located within its boundaries, where he became well and favorably known as a farmer and stockman, raising and dealing in stock. Up to his death, in 1879, he remained here, closely occupied with his chosen calling. Emmet's mother was formerly Miss Martha Tucker, also of Tennessee nativity. She died in 1872, leaving five children: Emmet, Porter B., James Alice, Dudley and Parthena, who died July 1, 1884. The first named, the subject of this sketch, has had a career unmarked by any especial event outside the chosen channels of farm life to which he was brought up. This avocation he has always followed with but one exception, for a period of two years, during which he was engaged in the hotel business at Chillicothe, and it goes without saying that he surely understands the duties of an agriculturist. Mr. McKinney was married July 17, 1870, to Miss Sarah S. Patterson, a native of this county and the daughter of Archibald Patterson, who came originally from Tennessee. To them three children have been given that are now living: James T., Callie Gertrude and May Ethel, a bright interesting trio who form a beautiful link in their happy family chain. Three others died in infancy, the death of two of them occurring at the same time.


(Physician and Surgeon, Avalon)

Dr. Maberry, well known to our many readers, is deserving of more than ordinary mention in this connection, for besides being a physician and surgeon of ability and worth, he is a native born citizen of the county, and as such is justly entitled to a considerable share of public patronage. William and Mary (Wilkinson) Maberry, his parents, were among the first and most highly respected residents of Livingston county and are well remembered by early settlers here. James W. was born August 3, 1848, and was the sixth child in a family of eight children. Growing up on the farm of his father, his time was passed much as the lives of most farmers' sons and while not occupied in attending to duties about the place he was to be found in school, fitting himself for active life work. To the common school course of instruction which he received was added an attendance at Avalon College and for some three years he daily pursued his studies in that institution. In 1876 a desire to enter professional life led him to commence the study of medicine and under Dr. J. A. Munk, of Chillicothe, Mo., he was soon prepared to matriculate at the American Medical College of St. Louis. In 1878 the title of M. D. was conferred upon Mr. Maberry and soon after he commenced the active practice of his profession at Avalon. Six years later he attended the Eclectic Medical Institute of Cincinnati, O., from which he also graduated, and then he returned to this place, with which he has become closely identified. The large patronage which he has received ably attests the confidence reposed in him and the good results terminating from the cases placed in his care speak well for his skill as a practitioner. His views regarding theory and practice are broad and liberal, as is seen in his treatment, and during his professional career he has been a close and careful student of pathology; indeed, he may be considered a leader in the use of new and rational remedies. Dr. Maberry was married May 1, 1879, to Miss Lottie Rambo, of Whitley county, Ind. Four children are in their family: Lloyd C., Alma A., Mary Monzelle and George Buell. Though reared a Democrat the Doctor has always voted the Republican ticket. He belongs to the Masonic and Odd Fellows fraternities. Well posted in his profession and on the current topics of the day, he is esteemed an intelligent citizen and member of society.


(Farmer, Section 20, Post-office, Avalon)

Perhaps there is no name mentioned within the biographical department of Fairview township that is deserving of more prominent notice than that of William Maberry, a man who had the bravery in youth and the inclination to confront the dangers and hardships of pioneer life and blaze a way for civilization in this new country that has since become so populous and prosperous. A native of Tennessee, he was born March 19, 1816, and is the son of James and Nancy (Marlin) Maberry, of Murfreesboro, Tenn., the former being an agriculturist by choice and adoption. In 1818 he moved to Ray county, Mo., and followed farming there until coming to this county in 1833, his location being made four miles north of the present site of Chillicothe. In 1853 he settled in the southern part of the county where his son, William, now resides. Here he died about 1869, his wife having preceded him to the grave some three years previous. To them eleven children had been given, six of whom survive: Polly, now Mrs. Wiley Linville, of this county; Margaret, wife of William Shivees; Rachel, married Benjamin Boren, and both of these families reside in Texas; Robertson and Thomas live in this township. William Maberry has known from a very early date the principles connected with farming. The education which he received was of necessity limited, for schools were few in number when he was a boy. February 19, 1837, he was married to Miss Mary Wilkinson, who died in 1868, leaving nine children: Pirnecia, wife of Drury N. Matthews, now of Comanche county, Kan.; Thomas B., of Blue Mound township, this county; he took an active part in the late war, and so also did Daniel, who at one time, in company with a companion, attempted the arrest of a man, and succeeded in their undertaking, but by some means he turned on his captors and shot them both, Daniel receiving a full charge of shot in the face, which destroyed his eyesight; another daughter, Sarah J., married Drury N. Morris and is living in Kansas, whither they recently moved; George died in 1880 at the age of 33; James was educated as a physician; Robertson died when 17 years old; Wiley C., the youngest, went to Kansas some time ago and is now located there. Mr. Maberry's second wife was formerly Miss Margaret Wilcox, to whom he was married in 1869. Mr. M. belongs to the Baptist Church, as does his estimable companion. He is well regarded one of the solid, substantial agriculturists of Fairview township and vicinity, for he has been tried in many an emergency, but always stood the test. He might be called a typical Missourian; strong physically and of commanding appearance, he seems to be possessed of as much vitality as when much younger in years. His own arm has wielded no little influence in the development of this county, and no little credit is due him for the part he has taken in its growth and prosperity. His farm of 200 acres is some three miles and a half west of Avalon.


(Physician and Surgeon, Avalon)

One of the most thoroughly qualified and best educated professional men in this portion of Livingston county is Dr. Marshall, whose career while pursuing the practice of medicine has been uniformly successful and substantial. In the treatment of diseases he has built up a large and steadily increasing practice and among his professional brethren he is recognized as a practitioner of real merit. Dr. Marshall was born in the county of Lanark, Province of Ontario, Canada, December 15, 1847, the son of Isaiah Marshall, a native of County Armaugh, Ireland, the maiden name of the latter's wife being Jane Thompson, originally from Scotland, though their marriage occurred in Ireland. In 1838 they emigrated to Canada and still reside in that community, the father giving his time and attention to farming. He and his wife are members of the Presbyterian Church. Ten of their family of 15 children still survive, and all, but the subject of this sketch, make their home in Canada. Young Andrew during his boyhood days attended the common schools about his home until 13 years of age, then entering an academy at Perth, of which institution he was a student for two years. Soon after he embarked upon his professional career as teacher, an occupation he continued four years. Subsequently he passed two years at Rockwood Academy, familiarizing himself with the classics, and later on he was a student at Komoko Academy, preparatory to commencing the study of medicine. An insight into this science was begun in the city of London, Canada, under the guidance of Dr. Haggerty, and in the fall of 1870 he entered the University of Ann Arbor, Mich., where he remained for two years, thoroughly applying himself to his studies. The two following years he practiced his profession at Ionia, Mich., and afterwards attended the Miami Medical College, of Cincinnati, from which well known institution he was graduated in the spring of 1876, fully equipped with a knowledge of the science of medicine that would enable him to do so much for those in physical torment, A location was soon chosen in this county and after stopping a short time in Chillicothe he settled at Avalon. In 1880 he entered the American Medical College of St. Louis and from that college he also graduated. In 1886 he took a general course of instruction at the New York Polyclinic School and upon leaving here was the recipient of a certificate certifying to his complete and exhaustive application in the specialties of diseases of the throat and lungs and diseases of women. It is unnecessary to comment upon what react be Dr. Marshall's fitness for a long and useful career in his chosen profession. An education almost unexcelled, a mind stored with scientific research and a natural ability for its prosecution, he cannot but be successful. He takes little interest in political, preferring rather to devote himself to professional duties, though all moral and uplifting movements are aided by him. April 12, 1878, Dr. Marshall was married to Miss Margaret Vaughan, whose birth occurred April 12, 1856, in Waukesha county, Wis. Three children have blessed this happy union, Isaiah, Harley and Lina.


(Dealer in General Merchandise, Avalon).

Mr. Miller's location in this county dates from the year 1869, at which time he left Chariton county, Mo., and located here on a farm (in Fairview township). For about two years he was occupied in farming and school teaching and in 1871 he embarked in mercantile pursuits at Avalon, which has since been his point of residence, and where he has continued to be prominently associated with the business affairs of the community. He now handles, as he has allways done, a general stock of goods, such as are necessary to the wants of his numerous patrons, and as the oldest merchant at Avalon he has built up a patronage second to none in the town. Popular and influential, as a citizen he has drawn about him a good trade and one that gives full assurance of his future prosperity. Mr. Miller was born in Huntingdon county, Pa., June 8, 1838, of German ancestry, his grandfather, Henry Miller, having been born in Germany, as was also his (Henry's) wife. They located in Pennsylvania on coming to the United States and there reared their family of six children, John, the oldest, being the father of our subject. John Miller was, brought up in the Keystone State as a farmer and was married to Miss Susan Snair. In 1865, leaving Pennsylvania they moved to Mercer county, Ill., and there the father soon died, leaving six sons and one daughter. The mother now resides at Avalon. Reuben T. Miller grew up to a complete knowledge of the details of farm labor, and for the most part he obtained his education in the district schools of his native State, but his elementary training he supplemented with an attendance of one year at Cassville Seminary. On the first call for troops in 1861 he enlisted as a three months' man and served out his time, but on account of ill health he did not re-enlist. Subsequently, after recovering somewhat, he began teaching in the county of his birth and in connection with farm duties carried on this occupation until accompanying the family to Mercer county, Ill., in 1865, where he taught school two years. Upon removing to Chariton county, Mo., he resided there until taking up his abode in this county as above stated. In 1860 Mr. Miller was married to Miss Rachel Willett, who was born in Fulton county, Pa., in 1841, and died in Chariton county, Mo., in 1868, leaving three children: Harry E., Lilly J. and William W. April 23, 1874, Miss Alice Washburn, who was born in Williams county, O., became Mr. Miller's second wife. They had three children: Lora E., Vivian and Clyde, the latter two dying from scarlet fever in February, 1884. Mr. Miller has been a life-long Republican and many positions of trust and responsibility have been held by him, among others that of justice of the peace. He and his wife are members of the M. E. Church. At this time he is president of the Avalon Fair Association. The town of Avalon has reason to regard Mr. Miller with deep estimation for to no other one man is due as much of the growth and advancement of the place, as is due to him.


(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Section 14, Post-office, Avalon)

On the outskirts of the town of Avalon or just adjoining the corporate limits of the place, is situated the excellent estate of this representative tiller of the soil, a man considered to be one of the best farmers in the county - and justly so, for no one who knows anything about him will doubt that he carries out in a practical way the theory and progressive ideas with which his mind is stored. Mr. Moon is now a little past the age of 77 years and his entire life has been one ceaseless round of activity. He was born in Warren county, N. Y., April 13, 1809, his parents also being natives of the Empire State; the maiden name of his mother was Lydia Grissel. Job Moon passed the various stagees of childhood, youth and early manhood in New York State, occupied for the most part with farm duties, but in an early day in its history he removed to Allegan county, Mich., where he was engaged in lumbering. From this locality he moved westward to Nebraska and of that State he was indeed a pioneer, for the land had not then been surveyed. Soon after, however, a corps of engineers made their entrance into its borders and for six and a half years Mr. Moon was engaged with them in surveying. He finally pre-empted land and commenced farming and made excellent success in his operations. After 12 years spent in Nebraska, he came to Missouri in 1868, and selected a home within the limits of Livingston county, his present place being the one on which he settled at that time. This land was then unimproved and a great amonnt of energy and patient, hard working toil was necessary to properly cultivate it; but time has proven that Mr. Moon lost no opportunity to make this a superior place and he now owns 225 acres of land, under a high state of cultivation and improvement. Of late years the care of this farm has devolved upon Mr. Moon's nephew, who has taken active supervision, and with whom Mr. M. now makes his home. During his lifetime he has been an extensive traveler and by contact with different localities and people has gained wide information and become well posted. Some time was spent in Oregon, Washington Territory, etc., and he is now a member of a colony bound for Oklahoma. The entire country of Oklahoma was traversed by him in 1885, and he is very enthusiastic in praise of its beautiful land, location and territory. Mr. Moon never had the advantage of any education. His present comfortable competence has been gained entirely through his own resources and as he knows where every dollar has been acquired and take the greater pleasure in the enjoyment of what it provides. Though strong in his prejudices, he is a warm friend to those who show themselves friendly. All his ideas are those of an intelligent and progressive citizen. One fact should have been stated before, that after Mr. Moon left the surveying party, he left his farm in Nebraska in the hands of his brother and for l years he was in the mining districts of Montana, then returning to his farm in Nebraska.


(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Section 9, Post-office, Avalon)

Among the many men who have adopted this county as their home is Louis R. Neiman - a citizen who has done much to advance the county's interests, and benefit the community in which he has located. Originally from Montgomery county, Pa., he was born November 4, 1828, the son of Joseph and Susanah (Reigner) Neiman, his father also being a native of the Keystone State. Louis was the fourth child and third son in the family of six children. Not until long after reaching manhood did he leave Pennsylvania, and consequently grew up in the vicinity of his birthplace, learning the coach-maker's trade. This, however, he subsequently abandoned and engaged in mill wrighting, an occupation to which he devoted himself for many years, in different places, and with encouraging success. In 1859 he removed to East Tennessee, but a three year's stay there sufficed him, and in 1862 he returned to Pennsylvania. Up to 1870 he continued to remain there, but in the year mentioned he carried out the desire long entertained to remove westward, and came to Chillicothe, Mo. After four months spent in town he purchased his present place in this township, containing 120 acres, and while this is not as large as many others in the vicinity which might be mentioned, it is, without doubt, one of the most comfortable and best improved places in the county. Mr. Neiman carries on all his operations in such a practical, thorough manner that they could not fail of substantial results. He believes in the enjoyment of each day, it matters not how that day be spent, whether in work, or ease, or recreation, and no one who is acquainted with Mr. Niemann will condemn his manner of living. All that be has been acquired through his individual efforts. He has labored hard and endeavored to secure a comfortable competence of this world's goods, and he certainly has not come short, of his desires in this direction. In all his enterprises he has had the warm support and often the wise counsels of his worthy wife, formerly Miss Mary Creitz, originally from Lehigh county, Pa., who has proved herself to be a helpmeet, indeed. Mr. Neiman is a man of excellent judgment, and takes an intelligent part in the affairs of every-day life. He is a member of the Masonic fraternity, belonging to the lodge at Avalon.


(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Post-office, Avalon)

The Price family is an old and prominent one, both in this country and Europe, and representatives of its numerous different branches have risen to distinction in both countries. One worthy member of it, James M. Price, was born in Wabash county, Ind., January 31, 1841, and he it is whom we take as the subject of this sketch. His parents, Joab H. and Lavinia Price, nee Massey, both came originally from the Blue Grass State to Central Indiana, of which they were among the earliest settlers. After living there until 1853 they moved to Henry county, Ill., and in 1866 settled near Polo, Caldwell county, Mo., which was their home up to 1872. Then they went to Kingman county, Kan., but at present they are residents of Scotland county, this State. In every way they are esteemed members of society, and much esteemed. Jones M. Price, one in the family of eight children, was brought up to an agricultural experience, obtaining such an education as could be obtained in the common schools. August 12, 1862, he enlisted in Co. I, 112th Illinois volunteer infantry, and until the close of the war he bravely discharged his duty as a soldier, taking part in many severe engagements, especially against guerrillas in Kentucky, Tennessee and West Virginia as a member of the mounted infantry. He was with Burnside at Knoxville in the winter of 1863-64, and with the army of the Tennessee and Cumberland participated in the engagement at Buzzard's Roost, and the battles of the Atlanta campaign; with Thomas he was at the battles of Franklin and Nashville. After the close of the war Mr. Price returned home, but soon went to Boone county, Ia., from whence in the spring of 1866 he located near Polo, Mo. There he gave his attention to farming for some time, and was also occupied in mercantile pursuits at the town of Polo for a year. In 1881 he came to Avalon, and here he is at present engaged in agricultural and kindred pursuits, as well as being interested in real estate transactions. His place near the village embraces 65 acres, well improved, upon which are neat and convenient buildings, constitutiug a most desirable home. Mr. Price was married August 27, 1862, to Miss Olive J. Thomas, who was born in Wayne county, Mich., April 24, 1844. By this union there are two children, Lavina S. and Joab E. Mr. P. has long since shown himself to be a man of decided character. All worthy movements receive his aid and support, especially towards improving the educational opportunities for the children of this vicinity. Politically he is a Republican, and at present is the constable of Fairview township. The U. B. Church finds him a consistent, conscientious member.


(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Section 36, Post-office, Avalon)

Mr. Rawlins, an energetic farmer and a citizen of deserved popularity in Fairview township, has had an experience in life such as but few are called to pass through and one which, though sufficient to discourage most persons at certain times, has not unmanned him, for he is now recognized as among the substantial agriculturists of this community. Born in Howard county, Mo., in 1825, he was the son of John and Mildred (Emery) Rawlins, both natives of Clark county, Ky., but early settlers in Howard county, Mo. The father was engaged in the Black Hawk War, and a brother of his, Robert, was killed in the War of 1812. Fielding J. Rawlins was one of ten children, and all his brothers and sisters are dead except Oscar F., of Linn county, Mo.; Robert G. and Jefferson, who reside in Pettis county. George W. and Fielding J. enlisted for the Mexican War under Gen. Price, in 1846, and became members of Co. F, of the 1st Missouri regiment. The greater portion of the time they were stationed at Santa Fe. Mr. Rawlins and others under Capt. King were sent on an excursion to Fort Bent, a hazardous and laborious journey, the return trip especially being remarked for its numerous delays and troubles; many deaths occurred during this time, the result of measles. After the close of the war Mr. R. returned to Howard county, but the next spring made another trip to Santa Fe in charge of a large quantity of goods which were disposed of to good advantage, after which he again carne hack to his home. A thorough acquaintance with the Western plains and the Rocky Mountains caused him to be given charge of a company of immigrants bound for California and after a journey of four mouths their destination was reached in the spring of 1850. Until 1853 he remained there occupied in mining, with good success, so that when he returned home (by the way of the Isthmus) he was in possession of a comfortable sum of money. The same year (1853) he located where he now resides, purchasing as farm which was then unimproved and uncultivated; but by hard labor, and steady, energetic effort, he has greatly improved and added to his original possession until his present estate is considered a most valuable one. It embraces 380 acres two miles south of Avalon, upon which stock of all kinds is found, for he is a large dealer in stock, and among the most enterprising stock men in the county. During the war Mr. Rawlings was a Southern sympathizer and as such did not hesitate to freely express his sentiments and views. His candor and bravery in thus adhering to the principles which he believed right were doubtless the cause of his shameful treatment by the militia and others. On several different occasions his house was robbed by men who now hold prominent positions in life; during 1861, 32 valuable mules and horses were stolen or "pressed" into service by the same parties. Afterwards he was taken prisoner and confined at Chillicothe for five weeks, his cell-mate being a colored man, and then he was sent to Macon and thence to St. Louis, where he was held until after Lee's surrender. At one time, disposing of a large amount of personal property at a great sacrifice, he accumulated some $2,500 which he distributed at the bank and among personal friends for safe keeping, but of this he was relieved by the militia under false pretenses and it was never returned. In 1856 Mr. R. was married to Miss Mary A. Gearhart, of Howard county, Mo., daughter of Isaac Gearhart, one of Jackson's veterans at the battle of New Orleans. She died in 1869 leaving these children: John T., who died when 18 years old, from excessive study while at the Kirksville Normal School; he had also attended Avalon College for three years; Fielding J. remains at home and assists in the management of the farm. In 1871 Mr. Rawlings was again married, to Mrs. Heath, of Johnson county, who has borne him three children: Robert E. Lee, Annie E., and Louisa. Mr. R. is a stanch Democrat in his political tendencies. Outspoken and very decided in his preferences, he is however highly respected by his many acquaintances.


(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Post-office, Avalon)

About three and a quarter miles southwest of Avalon, situated in the midst of a beautiful country and one which seems to be especially adapted to the purposes of successful farming, is to be found the pleasant and well improved farm of Mr. Reed, a place of 210 acres, on which he expends all his energy and attention. But the results of these earnest efforts are apparent in the surroundings of his homestead, a comfortable, home-like residence. Mr. Reed claims Missouri as, his native state, his birth having occurred in Howard county December 15, 1843. His father, Elkanah C. Reed, came originally from Madison county, Ky., though he was but three years old when he left there to come to Missouri, and in Howard county he was subsequently married to Miss Joannah Watts, of that county. For some time he (Elkanah) carried on his trade of carpentering in connection with farming in Boone and Howard counties, and from Boone county he came to this county some time after and entered a farm of 320 acres. He died February 2, 1883, in the faith of the Christian denomination, to which he belonged; he was also a member of the Masonic fraternity, Three sons and one daughter constituted the family of Mr. and Mrs. Reed: James enlisted in the 44th Missouri in 1864 and served until his death from sickness, in 1865; Robert T. is now located on the old place; Wilmeth E. was married to Frank E. Riley, a merchant of Avalon; George S. enlisted in August, 1862, in Co. K, 23d Missouri, when but 19 years of age, was first stationed for a year at St. Louis and then went to Chattanooga. The first battle in which he was engaged was that of Peach Tree Creek, then Atlanta, and following this all the desperate encounters from Atlanta to the sea; on the return trip through the Carolinas he saw all the active service of that campaign up to the time of the surrender of Johnston in 1865. After returning from the war Mr. Reed was united in marriage with Miss Samantha E. Garr, daughter of John Garr, one of the old settlers and respected residents of Chillicothe. By this union there have been born six children: Fred W., Herbert G., James R., Ida, Charles and Ray. Mr. Reed is a member of Avalon Post No. 146, G. A. R., of which he is commander. He also belongs to the A. O. U. W. and I. O. O. F. and in the latter order has held all the chairs. Politically he is a Republican and his religious preferences tend towards the Christian Church, to which he belongs. In every walk in life he endeavors to do his duty as he has learned it from the highest example ever given man.


(Farmer and Stock-Raiser, Section 26, Post-office, Avalon)

Mr. Rickenbrode is the owner of a splendid farm of 280 acres situated not far from Avalon and on the southern road. His home is the picture of elegance and comfort, while his barns, large and commodious, and other necessary out-buildings, render his place a model one in every respect. A glance at this homestead would be sufficient to lead the observer to consider Mr. Rickenbrode an Eastern man, and such he is, for his birth occurred December 25, 1835, in Clarion county, Pa. Jacob and Willhelmina Rickenbrode, nee Mahle, his parents, were residents of the Keystone State a larger portion of their lives, Jacob, in fact, being a native of the State; his wife, however, had emigrated with her father and mother from Germany when she was quite small. Jacob Rickenbrode was a farmer by occupation, a calling which he followed until his death in 1861; his wife survived until 1884, when she too passed away. They were worthy, good people, members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church. To them nine children were born, Solomon being the oldest. Four of these are still living. Lewis is a farmer, occupying the old home place in Clarion county, Pa.; Susan married Isaac Imhoof, of the same county; John, the youngest in the family, resides near the subject of this sketch, in Fairview township. Solomon Rickenbrode was brought up as a farmer, but while young he learned the trade of a carpenter and successfully followed that calling until coming to Missouri in the fall of 1869. Since then he has worked some at the same business. and has erected several buildings, among others his own attractive dwelling and barn. Too much can not be said of his enterprise in thus setting an example for others to follow, in the matter of having fine houses and good improvements. Mr. R. was married June 24, 1858, to Miss Mary Lilly, of Pennsylvania, and the children who have blessed this union are Franklin W., born August 6, 1860, a graduate of Avalon College, who before the completion of his course had taught mathematics in the college, and now is a successful teacher in the country; Lottie A., born June 22, 1865, and William A. born October 12, 1866. Mrs. Rickenbrode's father died May 18, 1877, but her mother still survives at the good old age of 74. Both she and her husband have been consistent members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church from their youth, at Freeburg, Pa.


(Dealer in General Merchandise, Avalon)

Mr. Riley is prominent among the leading, active and intelligent business men of Avalon, and though still comparatively young in years, he is by no means unexperienced. His birth occurred June 20, 1851, in Bedford county, Pa. John Riley, his father, was a son of William Riley, a native of the Emerald Isle, and a sailor by calling, who, after he had quit the sea, located near Philadelphia, Pa., where he followed farming during the remainder of his life. His son, John, was born in the Keystone State, grew up on his father's farm and always resided upon the old homestead in Bedford county. After reaching maturity he was married to Miss Rebecca A. Speaker of the same state as himself, and to them the following family of children were given: William A., of DeWitt, Mo.; James H., of Ellsworth, Kan.; Mary E., now Mrs. Christian Wagner, of Everette, Bedford county, Pa.; Jacob E., residing at Chillicothe, Mo.; Bartley E., of Marshalltown, Ia., and George L., the youngest, who is a farmer in this township. Mr. Riley died March 28, 1864, and his wife September 14, 1878. Frank E. Riley was but 13 years old when his father's death occurred, and consequently his educational opportunities were rather more limited than they would otherwise have been. When 18 years old he began in life for himself, his mother and her family having moved to Livingston county in 1870. His first attempt at earning his own way was as a farm hand, for he was best acquainted with the details of that occupation, and here the schooling which he had received proved of great benefit to him. After settling in Missouri he attended an educational institution at Macon, Mo., and upon leaving there was well qualified for teaching, a profession that received his attention when he was about 20 years old. For six years he continued to be thus occupied, teaching in the public schools of the county and attaining to an enviable reputation as an educator of true merit and worth. Subsequently he embarked in general merchandising at Avalon and has since remained at this place, one of its representative business men. Several different branches of trade have received his attention and besides the regular mercantile business he has handled and dealt in town property to some extent, accumulating by careful management and judicious transactions a comfortable home for himself. Outside of this he has 120 acres of land and a well stocked, and well conducted mercantile house. All of Mr. Riley's transactions stamp him a competent business man, and his courteous and pleasant conduct to all with whom he comes in contact have gained for him many friends. His rise in the world has been an example of self-determination. Mr. R. was married April 28, 1874, to Miss Wilmoth E., only daughter of E. C. Reed (well known in this section of country), one of the native-born daughters of this county and township. Her birth occurred here April 2, 1856. One child has blessed this union, Edward L . Politically Mr. R. is a Republican. He belongs to the I. O. O. F.


(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Section 20, Township 56, Range 23, Post-office, Avalon)

Mr. Rohrer has been a resident of Livingston county since April, 1871, and sufficient time has therefore elapsed for his character as an agriculturist, no less than as a citizen, to become well known. At this time he is located upon an excellent tract of land known as "Grand View Farm," purchased from his brother, Joshua Rohrer, and in the conduct of this superior place he stands second to none in the county. His good management and business-like, progressive tendencies are everywhere noticeable and the surroundings of the home are such as , would attract universal attention. Mr. Rohrer came originally from Washington county, Md., where he was born June 23, 1822, the family of which he is a representative having been natives of Pennsylvania. His parents, Frederick and Elizabeth (Thomas) Rohrer, were themselves born in Maryland, of which State the family of Thomases were early settlers, and of course stanch sympathizers of the colonies during the Revolutionary War. Frederick Rohrer was a farmer by occupation, a calling that he followed until his death in 1855, his wife having died some time previous, in 1852. Eight children were in their family; of these Frederick and Mary Ann died when quite young; Daniel F. enlisted in the 202d Pennsylvania volunteer infantry during the Civil War and served throughout that struggle; he was a graduate of Dickinson College, of Pennsylvania; his death occurred in October, 1882; Joshua W. lived two years in Illinois, then came to this county, and afterwards enlisted as a private in June, 1861, in the 2d Missouri cavalry, Merrill's Horse; - but, in 1864, was promoted to captain of Co. D, and was discharged from service in September, 1865; he now resides in Maryland; Leah is the wife of Elias J. Ohr, of Dakota; Samuel was for 20 years a teacher in his native State and is now located at lola, Kas.; Martin T. was also a student at Dickinson College of Carlisle, Pa.. and at present resides at Mt. Morris, Ill., and George C. is the subject of this sketch. He was brought up as a farmer, receiving but a limited education, and a long time was engaged in various business enterprises outside of farming. During the war he was assistant assessor of internal revenue from 1863 to 1866, and was interested in merchandising from 1868 until his removal to this county, in April, 1871, as stated. Previous to that time however he had been prominently connected with the political movements of Maryland and his worth and influence had been deeply appreciated by his many acquaintances who finally called him to official position, electing him representative of his county in the State Legislature. In this capacity he served with credit and fidelity for two years, during 1858 and 1859. On March 8, 1844, Mr. Rohrer was united in marriage with Miss Mahala A. Mullendore, of Washington county, Md., who died February 22, 1845, leaving one child, Mary C., now Mrs. Noah W. Cronise, of Maryland. Mr. R. was again married, May 8, 1848, to Miss Sophia E. Deaner, daughter of Samuel Deaner, also from Washington county, Md. Five of the 12 children born of this union died when young; of those living Millard Fillmore is in the insurance business at Council Bluffs, Ia.; Samuel D. resides at the same place, and travels for the Buckeye Reaper Co.; Ida is the wife of Irvin F. Robison, of Comanche county, Kas.; Harry C. is in Chillicothe, a salesman for Wallbrun, Alexander & Co., and Luella D., Frank and Julia E. remain at home. Mr. Rohrer was formerly a member of the Good Templars, and is still active in temperance work. Formerly a Henry Clay Whig, he is now a Republican, popular to a great degree with the party and his many acquaintances. A number of years he served as township clerk. His farm contains 240 acres, well stocked. It is unnecessary to add that he is indeed a substantial agriculturist of this portion of the county.


(Notary Public, Insurance and Real Estate Agent, Avalon)

The notes from which this brief outline of the life of Mr. Skinner has been prepared bear evidence of the fact that he is deserving of especial mention among the leading men of Avalon and vicinity; for his connection with its affairs have resulted in much good and he has become a citizen whose presence is felt to be almost a necessity to the growth of the place. Born in Perry county, O., April 27, 1840, he was the son of Jesse and Talma (Smith) Skinner, both also of Ohio nativity, though of Irish ancestry, members of the Skinner family having been early colonial settlers in Pennsylvania, and there many of the name still reside. Jesse Skinner and wife were married in the Buckeye State and always made their home there, the former being a merchant in the town of New Lexington for 50 years, and a most worthy man in every respect. His wife bore him six children, all of whom do honor to their parents' memory. Samuel H. spent his youthful days in attending school at New Lexington and in assisting his father about the store. When some 18 years of age he came to Worth county, Mo., but a year later returned home, where he remained for 12 months. Subsequently he again moved to this State and up to the breaking out of the war was engaged in his uncle's store and in a mill; but when the threatening war cloud burst in all its fury he became a member of the M. S. M. and served for nine months in protecting home property. In 1862 he enlisted in Co. G, 27th Missouri volunteer infantry and participated in the siege of Vicksburg, and from that time on until the close of the war in all the encounters in which the 15th army corps was engaged, being with Sherman on his march to the sea. He saw much active service, and his record as a soldier is remembered, is above suspicion or reproach. Returning to Worth county after the war closed Mr, S. was soon called into official life, receiving the election to the office of county treasurer, a position he filled for four years. Later on he embarked in mercantile pursuit; at Grant City, remained there about four years, and in 1871 came to Avalon, where before long he opened out a stock of general hardware. However he has not confined himself entirely to this line, but for ten years he has been in other branches of merchandising. A greater portion of this time he has been postmaster of the place. He has held numerous township offices, and in all local and county affairs he has taken an interest by no means limited. Mr. Skinner was married at Grant City, in 1866, to Mrs. Charlotte Brown, who was born in Washington county, O. They have an adopted daughter, Hattie Skinner. Sir. S. has been a life-long Republican, and now he belongs to the G. A. R.


(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Post-office, Avalon).

Few men have more of genuine public spirit or are more ready to further pubic improvement by purse and personal influence than John M. Spears, a man who has been a resident of Livingston county continuously since 1869, though before that he had lived here at intervals, as shown in the following facts. During this time he has become well and most favorable known for so intimately has he been associated with the agricultural affairs of the county, especially in the direction of stock interests, that he has gained an extensive acquaintance, who hold him in high esteem. Mr. Spears was born in Harrison county, Ky., May 3, 1833, one of seven children of Adam Spears and wife, formerly Leah Baxter, both natives of Bourbon county, Ky., where they were brought up and married. The Spears are of German origin and the Baxters of Scotch-Irish lineage. John's grandfather, Christopher Spears, a Revolutionary solder, and his wife, Mary Bergy, were captured during the Revolutionary War and held as prisoners by the Indians for some time. After the war closed they settled in Kentucky. Adam Spears was a farmer by calling, as well as a stock-raiser. His son, John M., naturally grew up with a tendency to follow the same occupation and in this his in-bred qualties have been greatly strengthened by his acquired knowledge of agricultural life. He was but eight years old when his father died and the mother labored nobly to bring up her family. John received only a limited education, living at home until 22 years of age, after which he served an apprenticeship at the carpenter's trade in his native State, then moving to Pike county, Mo. Two years later be came to Livingston county, remained until 1862, and during all this time worked at his trade, save for a year that was spent in the improvement of a farm which he had purchased. Going overland to California, he stopped there until 1869, engaged in carpentering and freighting, and then returned to this county and bought the excellent estate which he now owns and occupies. This embraces 220 acres and is well improved and stocked. Like the majority of Kentuckians, Mr. Spears from manhood manifested a particular liking for horses and since his return from California he has handled this stock to a considerable extent, owning some of the best horses ever in the county. Much has been accomplished by him to improve the stock interests of the vicinity, and as all know his efforts have not gone unrewarded. In connection with Wm. H. Carpenter he owns an imported Clydesdale stallion, the first ever owned in Livingston county, and as perfect an animal as can be found in any State. They also have a half-bred Norman horse and Mr. Spears possesses a fine Jack. To put it plainly, and at the same time truthfully, Mr. S. is one among the foremost of the leading, practical and successful stockmen in this portion of the State, and much credit is due him for his active and progressive ideas in improving this industry. His marriage to Miss Mary E. Edrington, of Adair county, Ky. (born November 2, 1840), was consummated in county March 29, 1859, and by this union nine children have been born: Orah, Emma, Leela, Alice, Nora, Lulu, Walter A., Mamie, and an infant now deceased. Mr. Spears has never aspired to political preferment and up to 1872 he voted with the Democratic party; since then he has adhered to the Greenbackers, though in local politics he does not hesitate to support men and measures. His children have all been given good educational facililities, and in every way he has proven himself to be a most enterprising citizen. Mrs. Spears' parents, Benjamin and Emily (Settle) Edrington, were Kentuckians by birth and in pioneer days their families removed from Virginia to Kentucky. In 1850 Mrs. S.'s grandparents came to this county but in 1863 returned to the Blue Grass State where they died, leaving a large family of children.


(Farmer and Stock-raiser, Section 20, Post-office, Avalon)

The subject of this sketch is a son of one of the earliest settlers of Niagara county, N. Y., Daniel Vaughan, his father, having located there in 1816, when but 21 years of age. He was engaged in farming until 1849 when he moved to Wisconsin, near Milwaukee, and followed agricultural pursuits until his death in 1864, in his sixty-sixth year. Miss Susan Angel was formerly his wife and she died at Sioux Falls, Dakota, in the spring of 1885. Mr. Vaughan was a successful and prosperous business manager and at one time had accumulated several hundred acres of land, but during the financial crisis of 1837 he lost heavily. In the family of himself and wife were five girls and three boys, but of these only three are now living: Harriet is now Mrs. Harrison Caldwell at Sioux Fall, Dak.; Juliet is the wife of Joseph Keyes, of New York formerly, but now of Iowa, and Daniel. The five deceased were Phoebe, Mahala, Deborah, Francis and George. He whose name heads this biography was born February 4, 1830, in Niagara county, N. Y., and was reared on a farm. To the common school education which he received was an academi training, and on starting out in life for himself he had no means with which to commence. But of a determined spirit and bound to win his way he rented a farm in New York for one year, and then went to Wisconsin near a place where his father had previously located. He purchased 80 acres of land at first and by industry and economy succeeded in acquiring $500. With this amount he started West and during the winter of 1863 he located in Iowa, remaining there until 1866, when he came to Livingston county with $2,100. This amount enabled him to purchase a portion of his present farm, and to the original tract that he first owned additions have been made from time to time until there are 240 acres in the place that he now occupies. This is a valuable piece of land, being situated four miles west of Avalon, and the improvements upon it are deserving of special mention. Mr. Vaughan deals largely in sheep, cattle and horses and in the stock industry he has been very successful. As he reviews his life work, by no means yet accomplished, he can see much to feel proud of, for his rise in material affairs has been attained only through his own efforts. His genial disposition and warm hearted, cordial nature have drawn around him a divide circle of friends all over the county. All interests of a worthy nature receive his aid and support. An old line Whig, he is now a Republican. Public office has often been tendered him but as often has he refused to accept thee positions of honor. In 1849 Mr. V. was married to Miss Margaret Follet of New York, who died in 1851, leaving one child, Lewis, now living with his father. In 1854 Miss Harriet Warren became his wife, her birth having occurred in New York, Niagara county, in 1835. There are three children by this marriage, Maggie, wife of Dr. Andrew Marshal, of Avalon; Martha died when two years of age, and Dan Mack, who remains at home and attends Avalon College.


(Editor and Proprietor of The Aurora, Avalon).

Mr. Wilson is just now in the prince of a youthful, ambitious life, and by reason of his connection with journalism in this portion of the county is well known in press circles as a terse, vigorous writer, and clear, independent journalist. Added to the education which he received in youth, several years of experience and education have well qualified him for the work of an editor and it has become a recognized fact that he is just the man to conduct a live, influential paper at Avalon. He came originally from Linn county, Ia., where he was born August 8, 1856, His father, Thomas Wilson, was a native of Trenton, N. J., while his mother, whose maiden name was Sarah Livingston, was of Pennsylvania birth. About the year 1850 they emigrated from Ohio, where they had resided for some time, to Linn county, Ia., the father's death occurring there in 1876, but his widow still survives. Four children had blessed their marriage, of whom Robert, the subject of this sketch, was the third child. He learned the occupation of farming while growing up and obtained his preliminary education at the common schools, and when 19 years of age was fitted to engage in teaching. By practicing strict economy and applying himself with industry to his adopted calling he was enabled after a time to save sufficient money to secure a course through Western College, an institution of learning under the United Brethren Church, then located at Western, Ia., but now situated at Toledo, that State. After leaving this college Mr. Mr. Wilson became engaged on the staff of the Cedar Rapids Standard, with which paper he was connected until 1882, then coming to Avalon and purchasing The Aurora a progressive, independent journal, which had been started in 1880 as a monthly sheet, under the editorial guidance of Prof. G. M. Miller and Pres. C. J. Kephart. Some time in 1881 Silas H. Bigley and J. M. Miller became its proprietors and from a monthly paper it was changed to a weekly. The following year Mr. Wilson purchased it and has since devoted his time and attention to it, and as all will admit, it has been made a first-class, local journal. The success which he has had is shown by the stability of the paper as a newspaper enterprise, and the character and influence it is known to have. Mr. Wilson was married in 1883 to Miss Alice Singley, of Moulton, Ia., the daughter of George and Mary A. (Trefts) Singley, formerly from Pennsylvania, but now a resident of Moulton, Ia., where the father is a prosperous farmer. He is a machinist by trade and followed engine building at Johnstown, Pa., until removing to Iowa. Mrs. Wilson is a lady of superior intellectual attainments and refinement of manners, and has indeed been of material assistance to her husband during their happy married life of some three years. She was educated at the High School of Moulton and at Western College, where an excellent educational training was given her. In both social and private circles she is a universal favorite, her modest, unassuming demeanor and beauty of character, as well as her true worth, winnings for her many friends. Mr. and Mrs. W. are the parents of one child, Karl Fred. Mr. Wilson is also one of the directors of the Avalon Fair Association, for which he has done many things to aid in its upbuilding.

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