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History of Livingston County
from The History of Caldwell and Livingston Counties, Missouri.  1886

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Murder of Wm. P. Frazer - Killing of Joe Hart - The "Radicals" and the "Conservatives" - 1864 - Miscellaneous - Markets in 1864 - County Court in War Times - Elections during the War.


On the 1st of March, 1863, Wm. P. Frazer, a farmer living six miles southwest of Utica, was shot and killed by some person or persons at the corner of a field between the railroad bridge over Grand river and Utica, and near the block house at the bridge. The shooting was done with s shot-gun, and the wounds were in the head and breast. An inquest held by Coroner Williams developed these facts: Mr. Frazer was a bachelor, a man of quiet, inoffensive habits, and there was no excuse for his cowardly murder. He was a "Southern sympathizer," and his murder was attributed to some of the unscrupulous members of the militia. At the beginning of the war, however, he was a Union man, and drilled the Utica Union Home Guards.


About the 1st of July a bushwhacker, called Joe Hart, entered this county and began operations. His force numbered only half a dozen, and these operations were necessarily on a small scale. The real name of this guerrilla was Joseph Lawrence Hart. He entered the Southern army from Buchanan county, but deserted in the fall of 1862 and came to Missouri and engaged in bushwhacking. He was a fair scholar, wrote a neat lady's hand, and could favorably impress a stranger with his intelligent conversation if he wished. But Joe Hart was a thief, a robber and a murderer. Ostensibly a rebel and boasting of his implacable hatred of Yankees, he robbed and plundered the people of Clay county without regard to their politics; a Southern man's money was as good to him as a Yankee's, and a "rebel sympathizer's" horse was as useful as a militiaman's.

Driven out of Clay and Platte, Hart and his band drifted finally into this county. But their stay here was very brief. On July 13 a detachment of militia came upon them in the northern part of the county and dispersed them in short order. Hart was instantly killed. On his person was found, among other articles, a piece of poetry clipped from a newspaper, " We met, 'twas in a crowd," etc., and a letter to his parents which he had written but a few hours before, expecting to have it mailed at Chillicothe. Following is a copy of this letter: -


DEAR PARENTs: Being up in this country with a body of Partisan Rangers on a raid, I have concluded to drop a few lines to you, letting you know of my health, which is fine, and also of my operations and of my brother George. I saw some boys and have some now under me, just up from the army, who saw George about the 20th of May, and after the battle of Cape Girardeau. He was well and in excellent spirits. John is dead. He was wounded at Springfield, January 8, 1863, and died soon after. Don't weep over him. He fell like a hero, and Marmaduke and McDonald say that he never flinched amid the shower of balls which fell so thickly around him, but led the charge on the enemy with the coolness and gallantry of a veteran. Cols. Sweet and Parsons say that he was the shining star of the 15th Texas cavalry. At Pea Ridge his comrades say that he was always in advance, uncovered and exposed, yet unmoved and immovable. Gen. Henry McCulloch, brother of Ben McCulloch, says that he and Stillwell Shirley led the charge at Parakeet Bluffs, on Curtis' entire cavalry, routing them and killing 230, when their major failed to lead them. I, with you, will always mourn his untimely death, yet he could not have died in a better cause. He was a second lieutenant. George is now a first lieutenant.

I captured a lot of Andrew militia and killed several. The boys under my command caught Harrison Burns, George Henry wand some one else, I don't know who yet, and killed them, as they refused to give up their arms, which were navy revolvers, and tried to shoot while in the house, when they were killed in the presence of the women. I could not help it. It was their own fault; they should have surrendered. We got four fine navy revolvers from them. They helped to murder George Breckinridge and old Sam Mason and shot Mrs. Mason in the arm.

You did not get out any too soon. I am going to cross the whole Quantrill regiment, and kill off Andrew county, every last devil, and they know it. You bet, they fly when they hear of me up here. They say I am a damned sight worse than Quantrill and that, my men would sooner die than live. I captured $30,000 in greenbacks on my last raid from the Federal paymaster at Plattsburg. I think our boys killed Bill Ogle.

My headquarters are in Jackson county. Write to me and tell me how yon are getting along, and where you are at. I may do something for you. Don't come back. Tell me what post-once to direct to. Answer this immediately. Enclose it in a small envelope an direct to Joseph Lawrence, then enclose in a large envelope and direct to James Butts, Liberty, Clay county, Mo., and don't sign your full name. Better just sign Emma. How had I better send you money, by letter, express, or special messenger? I will send you some sometime this summer. Tell me where my cousins are at, and who is in the army. Give my love to all.

I was wounded in the head not long ago, but am well now. We, twelve of us, charged 71 Feds. with our navy revolvers, a few days ago, in Jackson, killing 40 some odd, capturing 50 breech-loading rifles, 54 or 55 navy revolvers, and about 60 horses, with their equipage, and lost only 3 killed; none wounded or taken prisoners.

I remain your son,


Capt. Commanding 1st Batt., 1st Regt. Frontier Line Brigade of Partisan Rangers, C. S. A.

Cousin Sallie: - I have directed this to you because I do not know where pa or ma are at. Please send it to them and oblige. I wrote to you last spring, but never received any reply. Yours,


Hart's account of the killing of 230 Federals at Paroquet Bluffs, of the 40 Federals in Jackson county, and of the capture of $30,000 from a Federal paymaster, were the wildest and most untruthful exaggerations. The fellow was marvelously fond of gasconading.

On his body the following, among many other letters from the same writer, was also found. The initials are those in reverse order of Miss N. Virginia Kennison, of St. Joseph, who was Hart's ladylove: -

ST. JOSEPH, Mo., June 15, 1863.

My Dear: - This will be the third letter I have addressed to you since I came here, which was three weeks ago. I was here when you wrote to inform me of your safety. Mr. received your letter, read it, and burned it. He says he is confident it had been examined. I fear harm will result from it. Tell J. B. the lady in whose letter he enclosed me one is doing everything in her power to get me into trouble, and is trying to ruin his father's family. Tell him to look out; there's breakers ahead. Write to me immediately. You don't know how I have suffered from anxiety,

Ever faithful, in haste,

K. V. N.

Hart was killed by a squad of Co. K, 4th Provisional, under Lieut. David Gibbs, sent out from Spring Hill. The shot that killed him was fired by Wm. Matthews. The following account of the circumstance was furnished at the time by W. C. Wood, a member of the company, to the Chillicothe Chronicle: -

Hart carne into the forks last Thursday with Tom Crews and other desperate characters. Soon as the facts became known Lieut. Gibbs started a scout after them which returned Friday noon, without accomplishing anything. On Sunday night another scout was started out on Clear Creek range and camped about midnight. Monday morning, at daylight, Lieut. Gibbs moved forward to the timber of Clear creek, in which the bushwhackers' trail was struck at the bend of Coon creek, and after following a zig-zag trail for some distance the scout divided into two squads, one taking the Coon creek hills; the other, consisting of seven men. followed up Clear creek and soon struck the trail of the guerrillas, six in number. They followed up rapidly among the deep hollows and thick brush, until within half a mile of old man Curtis' farm, when they were fired on by Hart and his men. Two rounds were fired at forty feet range, when our boys replied, raised the yell, and charged the steep bluff. The guerrillas broke and fled in the dense thicket after Hart fell. He was shot through the neck after taking two deliberate shots at one of our gallant boys who was in twenty feet range. Four horses, two 9-inch navy revolvers, overcoats, blankets, a piece of' blue jeans, etc., were captured. On Hart's person were found his commission from Col. Parker, of Jackson county, a silk flag of Jeff Davis' kingdom, a field-glass, memorandum book, etc. *** Our boys helped bury Hart where he fell. On Monday night the gang stole three horses from Will Blackburn and Wash. Masterson, and our boys recaptured two of them on Wednesday.


In the spring of 1863 began a series of controversies between the Union men of the county on the question of emancipation. one faction called the Radicals or "Charcoals," endorsed President Lincoln's emancipation proclamation, " only regretting that it did not apply to Missouri," and favoring immediate abolition in this State. The other faction, composed of "War Democrats" and conservative men, did not endorse the President's proclamation and some were not in favor of emancipation at all. July 1 of this year the State Convention (by a vote of 51 to 30) passed an ordinance abolishing slavery in the State after July 4, 1870, within certain provisions relating to minor slaves and those over 40 years of age. This ordinance was generally acceptable to the Conservatives, but was in disfavor with those of Confederate sympathies and with the Radicals alike; one was opposed to emancipation at any time, the other wanted it to come immediately.

A bitter quarrel arose between the Radicals and Conservatives throughout the State. Gov. Gamble and Gen.' Schofield were Conservatives, and the latter had the support of President Lincoln in his administration1 of affairs in Missouri. Gamble and Schofield were denounced by the Radicals, even as "Copperheads" and " rebel sympathizers," and sometimes the President was censured.

1 To James Taussig, of St. Louis, who in May, 1863, presented to Mr. Lincoln some resolutions of Missouri Radicals, the President said: "The Union men of Missouri who are in favor of gradual emancipation represent my views better than those in favor of immediate emancipation." At the same time he said the two quarreling factions in this State "ought to have their heads knocked together."

In Livingston county the Radical leaders were active and outspoken. Their organ, the Constitution, was severe in its denunciation of " Copperheads," and its editor, Howard S. Harbaugh, was a strong Abolitionist. Rev. T. B. Bratton, of the M. E. Church, was another strong Radical. In public speeches and meetings these two had used strong language in denouncing the authorities for their policy of conservatism, and about the 10th of July Gen. Odon Guitar, in command of this district, ordered their arrest on a charge of " seditious and revolutionary conduct," and they were taken into custody at Chillicothe, where Capt. T. B. Reed, of Guitar's old regiment, the 9th M. S. M., was provost marshal. A writ of habeas corpus was sued out for their deliverance before Judge Mcferran, but the military refused to respect it, and the prisoners were kept in confinement and ordered to be sent to St. Louis for trial.

The Radicals of the county were greatly excited over the arrest of Bratton and Harbaugh, and denounced it as a vagrant outrage, etc. Bratton was at the time presiding elder of his church in this district. A large number of the Union ladies of the county were members of a semi-political organization called the Union Ladies' Encampment. A committee of ladies from the Harper Union Ladies' Encampment of Utica, carrying the national flag and wearing red-white-and-blue sashes, came over to Chillicothe, ostensibly to inquire what the charges were against Rev. Bratton and Mr. Harbaugh, but really, perhaps, to make a demonstration that would result in their release. In n communication to the St. Louis Democrat the ladies gave the following account of their visit: -

***We waited on Judge McFerran at the Harry House. The Judge was introduced by Rev. Mr. Ellington, accompanied by Col. Hale. We informed him who we were; that we had waited on him to ascertain the charges against Mr. Bratton, who was our minister end "grand worthy chief" of our encampment. *** The Judge said we had a right to call for the charges; that he knew nothing of the cause of the arrest; that Capt. Reed, of Gen. Guitar's regiment, had made the arrests without his knowledge, which was assented to by Col. Hale; that he would bring Capt. Reed, who could give us the desired information.***

The captain seemed much excited and angry; taking a piece of paper from his pocket he demanded the names of our officers, which we commenced giving. We told him we would give the names of all our members if desired - which numbered about two hundred and fifty; that our officers had been publicly installed on the Fourth of July at Utica. Hastily putting up his paper he arose and said we had no right to come and demand any such information. He ordered us to roll up our flag, takeoff the red-white-and blue sashes, and go home; said he would not give us any information about the arrests; that they were optional with him; then said they were in accordance with orders received from Gen. Guitar; talked about our being revolutionary bodies; supposed we protected all manner of crime; asked if we did not know there was a law in Indiana breaking up all such organizations, etc.

After making a great many similar remarks, which we suppose he would not have done if he had not been excited, he told us he would have given the desired information if we had come without the flag and colors. We then informed him we did not intend to roll up the Rag or take off the colors, that he would have to do it himself if it was done, which he did not undertake. We then requested the privilege of seeing Elder Bratton, who was sent for, but he objected to sending for Mr. Harbaugh. Mr. Bratton advised us never to roll up our national Gag. After all uniting in singing, "Rally 'Round the Flag," we withdrew,

The prisoners were finally released without trial. But the wrangle between the Conservatives and Radicals went on until President Lincoln said: "Either would rather see the defeat of their adversary than that of Jeff. Davis." Because Col. Hale pursued a conservative and humane policy towards Confederate sympathizers, and did not oppress them or treat them rigorously without cause, And especially because he did not interfere with slaves to liberate them, he was in ill-favor with the Radicals, who often denounced him as a "copperhead," and even as a "rebel sympathizer."

A great change had taken place in two years. While in the summer of 1861 there was less than two hundred men in the county ready to declare boldly that they were for the Union without an " if" or a "but," and only a mere handful favoring the abolition of slavery - in the summer of 1863 hardly a man could be found who would say he was not for the Union unconditionally, and hundreds were clamoring for immediate emancipation or abolition.

Judge James McFerran was especially detested by the Radical element. He held three choices under the State government - judge of the circuit court, member of the State Convention, and colonel of the 1st M. S. M. cavalry. He was a Conservative. Coming to Chillicothe to hold a term of court Col. Judge McFerran found such a state of affairs that he decided it was unsafe to do so, and adjourned the term to a subsequent date. The Radicals held a large meeting and burned him in effigy.

Lieut.-Col. A. M. Woolfolk, of McFerran's regiment, and a citizen of Chillicothe, an original Union man, as noted elsewhere, had resigned his commission and returned home. He was a conservative, and while at Sedalia, in February, 1862, wrote and published a pamphlet, entitled, "A Voice frown the Camp," which credited a great sensation, and really led to the author's resignation. It took strong grounds against the President's emancipate proclamation, and hinted at the propriety of forming a northwestern confederacy, to be composed of States not then in rebellion and opposing abolition. Not long before Woolfolk wrote his pamphlet McFerran addressed him a letter proposing to resign the colonelcy of the 1st M. S. M. and to recommend him for the position. McFerran said he wished to devote his entire time to the circuit judgeship; but the Radicals gave him no credit for good intentions, and denounced both him and Woolfolk as a "brace of copperheads and traitors."

There were many disorderly scenes. August 8 a public greeting "of all Union men" was held in the public square at Chillicothe. Both conservatives and Radicals attended. Dr. Dewey, of Spring Hill, presided. Radical speeches were made by Rev. Bratton, Mr. Harrington, of St. Joseph, and Daniel Proctor, of Caldwell. Strong Radical resolutions were adopted. Then the Conservatives called for Col. Hale, who responded in a speech defending Gov. Gamble's administration, the State Convention emancipation ordinance, and the "law and order" policy of the Conservatives generally. Mr. Roderick Matson, of Utica, then presented a set of Conservative resolutions and moved their adoption. The Conservatives cried out: "Good! good! Let us vote on them." The Radicals called for "Harrington," and some cheered for Jim Lane. There was a great tumult, in the midst of which a squad of Col. Hale's militia, armed and equipped, appeared, and Col. Hale called out to the Radicals: "If you don't keep quiet, I will use force." The Radicals subsided, and then Mr. Matson's resolutions were adopted. Each side accused the other of disturbing the meeting and trying to break it up.


The Provisional Militia of Missouri was organized under an order of Gen. Schofield, dated February 8, 1863. It was composed of details from the Enrolled Militia, one regiment of twelve companies being allotted to each military district in the State. The officers and men selected for service in the Provisional militia were chosen for their alleged general efficiency as soldiers, and the idea originating the organization was that it would dispense with the services of the large body of' Enrolled Militia, which would cost too much if kept constantly in the field, and which was of but little utility when called out irregularly. The Provisional Militia was to be well armed and mounted and kept constantly in service, until finally relieved, and one company was expected to prove of as much value as a regiment of the E. M. M. In this district (the fourth) Col. John B. Hale was placed in command of the Provisional regiment, whose number (fourth) was the same as that of the district.1 The companies were from the various counties of the district and the officers from different regiments. Co. K of the 4th Provisional was frown Livingston and made up of details from the 65th E. M. M. Wm. Barnes was captain, A. J. Swain and David Gibbs, lieutenants.

1 The lieutenant-colonels were R. F. Dunn and A. J. Swain, both of Livingston county. When the latter became lieutenant-colonel John DeSha was appointed lieutenant of Co. K.

In July, 1863, Col. Hale made his headquarters at Chillicothe. Three companies of the regiment were stationed in the county, Co. K was sent to Spring Hill, Co. G (Capt. John Field, of Grundy), to Utica, and Co. B (Capt. Fortune, of Caldwell), to Chillicothe. In August Lieut. Wm. McIlwrath, of Co. D, 9th M. S. M. (Guitar's regiment), came to Chillicothe as provost marshal of the sub-district.

The factional strife between the Radicals and Conservatives extended into the Provisional Militia. On one occasion Col. Hale arrested at Chillicothe a soldier who was trying to force a comrade to join him in cheering for Jim Lane; but the next morning the colonel discharged him with a reprimand. The same evening two other soldiers, members of Field's company, were shouting on the streets for the noted Kansas Abolitionist, and Hale ordered Capt. Fortune to take them into custody. Fortune's men, encouraged by Lieut. Orem refused to make the arrest, and it was made at last by Lieut. Swain, and the men confined in the court-house.

Word of the arrest of two of their comrades was conveyed to Capt. Field's men at Utica, and in an hour or two the entire company came galloping into town, flourishing their weapons, and themselves shouting lustily for Jim Lane! They declared they would rescue their comrades "or die," but Col. Hale had already released them. The " Grundyites " then proceeded to " take the town," while the terrified citizens proceeded to" take " to their houses! After charging wildly around the square and through the streets, cheering for Lane and "d - ning the man that won't," the company returned to Utica. Shortly afterwards Field's and Fortune's companies were relieved from service by Col. Hale and sent to their homes.

Capt. N. B. Brown's company, M, of Daviess county, was then sent to Chillicothe, but it, too, was insubordinate, and it was said that it "drank more whisky than both Fortune's and Field's, and they drank a great deal." On the last of December it was also relieved, and by the 1st of January only two companies, Capt. Tiffin's and Capt. Calvert's, of the 4th Provisional were in service.

After the killing of Joe Hart, there were few or no bands of guerrillas and bushwackers in the county during the year 1863, but the entire country was infested with thieves and robbers and depredations were daily reported. In December, Provost Marshal McIlwrath arrested about thirty citizens of Ray, Carroll and Livingston, charged with thieving and robbery. These men were nearly all said to be Radicals and ex-members of the militia. Two of them were guerrillas, and had assisted in the capture of the steamboat Marcella, at Dover Landing, in September, and were participants in the murder of some Federal soldiers, who were taken off the boat and shot. The most prominent of these offenders were sent to St. Louis.

From time to time certain citizens of real or supposed Confederate sympathies were warned to leave this and other counties on pain of loss of life and property, and the military authorities were constantly called for relief and protection. Some arrests were made of "bulldozers," who invariably pleaded that they had only been retaliating on rebels "for ordering Union men to leave the State in 1860 and 1861." The situation was not at all felicitous.

In December occurred the murder of Brock and Bloom, at Mooresville, which is fully noted elsewhere. (See chapter on Mooresville township).


During the year 1864 but few events of an important character occurred in the county. The Union troops had full and complete control, and maintained their authority.

On Monday, July 11, a man named Frank Purcell was killed at the house of a Mr. Sullivan, six miles south of Chillicothe. Four balls entered his body within the space of two inches. The coroner's jury decided that he was killed by bushwhackers. A few hours previously the house of a Mr. Dishman, three miles from Sullivan's, where Purcell was killed, was attacked by presumably the same band that killed Purcell. But Mr. Dishman defended his premises so vigorously, wounding one of his assailants, that the cut-throats retreated.

The guerrilla bands of Bill Anderson, Clif. Holtzclaw, Jim, Jackson and George Todd occasionally raided through the counties south of this, murdering, burning and plundering, but seldom came as high up as Livingston. During the Price raid in the fall, there was some alarm among the people that the Confederates were on their way to the county, but they never came. To be sure there were other alarms from time to time, but they were only trying to the nerves.

In August a company was raised in this county for the 44th Missouri infantry, and became Co. G of that regiment. Its officers were A. L. Bowen, captain; John DeSha, first lieutenant; Wash Bennett, second lieutenant. The services of the 44th Missouri are detailed in the History of Caldwell County, q.v..

By January 1, 1864, Livingston county had furnished the following soldiers for the Federal army, besides those in the Enrolled and Provisional Militia: -

In U S Service In MO State Militia Foreign Regts. Colored recruits
18th Mo. Infantry 36 1st M. S. M. 13 Illinois 4 1st Mo. A. D. 69
23d Mo. Infantry 60 3rd M. S. M. 221 Iowa 2 2d Mo. A. D. 2
24th Mo. Infantry 2 6th M. S. M. 63 Misc. 4 1st Iowa A. D. 27
25th Mo. Infantry 5
27th Mo. Infantry 29
29th Mo. Infantry 14
30th Mo. Infantry 1
33d Mo. Infantry 5
35th Mo. Infantry 2
2d Mo. cavalry 70
7th Mo. cavalry 4
8th Mo. cavalry 1
11th Mo. cavalry 22
12th Mo. cavalry 2
Total 253 297 10 98

The estimated number of men enlisting in 1864 was 200, making the whole number of soldiers furnished the Union army during the war - enrolled militia and home guards not counted - was, in round numbers, about 850. Under all calls of the President for volunteers previous to December 19, 1864, the county furnished a surplus of twelve. The total number of Confederate soldiers furnished by the county - bushwhackers and guerrillas not included - has been estimated at 200.


Thursday, July 7, three ladies, Mrs. Akins, Miss Jacobs and Miss Smith, were drowned while bathing in East Grand River, a mile above Anderson's ferry and three miles from Chillicothe. Their bodies rose to the surface the next morning and were taken out.


In response to Gen. Rosecrans' "Order No. 107," calling on the citizens to organize for the suppression of guerrilla bands, a meeting - or rather two meetings - came off in the public square at Chillicothe, July 9. The Radicals and Conservatives each held a meeting. The Conservative meeting, of which Smith Turner was chairman and B. F. Sherman secretary, was addressed by Col. A. M. Woolfolk, who closed by moving that a committee of five he appointed to draft resolutions expressive of the sense of the meeting, which was carried, whereupon the chairman appointed Col. A. M. Woolfolk, J. D. Sherman, S. P. Mountain, Capt. Garvin and Charles Wigely, said committee. The committee retired a few minutes and reported the following resolutions:

WHEREAS, the peace and quiet of our State has been again threatened by bands of armed outlaws in some localities, robbing, plundering, and murdering peaceable and inoffensive citizens; and whereas the commanding general of this department has issued an order calling upon citizens irrespective of party distinction to assemble in their respective townships and counties and organize committees of public safety therein; be it therefore

Resolved, By the people of Livingston county in mass meeting assembled, that we regard the plan of Gen. Rosecrans, as set forth in the General Order No. 107, for the suppression of all and every species of outrage, for the restoration of law and order and the protection of the law-abiding and peaceably disposed citizens, as meeting with our hearty approval, if carried out in a non-partisan and proper spirit.

Resolved, That the committee of safety for the county appointed at this meeting be and are hereby instructed to correspond with the respective townships in the county and see that committees are appointed in each in accordance with Gen. Rosecrans' order.

Resolved, That in the present quiet condition of our county we do not see any necessity of calling more troops into service, but would urge upon the county committee to be ever vigilant and watchful over the interest and peace of the county, reporting, advising and consulting with the local and district commanders when in their judgment necessity requires it.

Resolved, That we select the following committee of public safety for the county of Livingston, to wit: Benjamin Berry, Robt. Williams, Dr. B. F. Sherman, Col. Roderick Matson and Smith Turner.

Which were read and unanimously adopted.


Following is a copy of a market report as made by W. S. Crouch & Co., of Chillicothe, and published in the Chronicle of July 14, 1864: -

Chillicothe, July 13, 1864.

Butter - 12 cents per pound; scarce.

Salt - $6 per barrel; advancing.

Prints - 35@40 cents per yard.

Domestics - 55 to 70 cents per yard.

Spun Cotton - $9.50 per bunch.

Sugar - Brown, 30 cents; crushed, 37 cents per pound.

Coffee - 60 cents per pound.

Tea - $1.50@$2.50 per pound.

Rice - 16 2/3 cents per pound.

Candles - Star, 30 cents. Tallow, 12 per pound.

Flour - $1.50@$12 per barrel.

Meal - 75c@80c per bushel; scarce.

Oats - 55c. per bushel: declining.

Corn - $2.50 per barrel.

Rye - 65 cents per bushel.

Tallow - 8 cents per pound.

Hides - Flint, 14 cents; green, 6c per pound.

Beeswax - 50 cents per pound.

Bacon - Sides, 13c; hams, 11c; shoulders, 9c.

Lard - In kegs and barrels, 10c; loose, 9c.

Eggs - 12 cents per dozen; scarce.

Potatoes - $1.00 per bushel.

Nails - 10@10 c per pound.

Feathers - Prime, 50c per pound.

Dried Fruit - Apples, 15c; peaches, 25c per pound.

Whisky - $2.00@$2.75 per gallon.

White Beans - $1.00@$1.75c per bushel.

Hungarian Seed - $1.00 per bushel.

Millet Seed - $1.00 per bushel.

Flax Seed - $1.75 per bushel.


No regular term of the county court was held between June 4, 1861, and January, 1862. At the June term, 1861, there were present the three justices, James A. Davis, A. Wallace and Abel Cox; Sheriff Saml. L. Harris and Clerk Amos Bargdoll. A brief session of the Court of Appeals from the assessor's report was held in July. Then the soldiers carne, and the court "shut up shop" for a season; for in time of war civil courts are often silent. On the third Monday in December Judge Davis alone appeared.

By the first of January, 1862, the Provisional Government of Missouri was thoroughly established and its authority recognized in every county north of the river, and the civil officers generally throughout the county had taken the oath of allegiance thereto. On the 28th of the preceding October, however, a body calling itself the true Legislature of Missouri, and recognized by Claiborne F. Jackson as such, had, at Neosho, Newton county, passed an ordinance of secession, and Missouri was considered in certain quarters to be one of the Confederate States. This consideration only obtained where Gen. Price's army held control, and in Livingston county the "Gamble government" was alone recognized and obeyed.

The county officials took the oath of allegiance to the latter government, and in January there were present Justices Davis, Wallace and Cox, Clerk Bargdoll and Sheriff Harris. The last named official resigned, and in February David R. Martin was appointed acting sheriff. Thos. Brooks was appointed assessor.

Thereafter, with but one exception, the county courts were held at the regular terms and the county's business regularly transacted during the war. In March, 1864, the court was held over Crouch and Co.'s store in Chillicothe, where the clerk's office had been removed. The court-house in the center of the square was virtually abandoned, and in a year or so was town down. At this term C. H. Mansur was appointed the agent of the county to prosecute the claims of soldiers and soldiers' widows and orphans growing out of military services.

In August, 1864, the county court offered a bounty of $100 to every soldier enlisting in the Federal service for at least one year, provided such enlistment was made prior to the draft, which went into operation September 5. No court was held from September, 1864, to February, 1865.


Notwithstanding the presence of hundreds of the Federal soldiery in this county in the year 1862 and the many shocks to law and order incident to "war's alarms," courts were held and other public proceedings had according to the forms and rules of law; and the vote at the November election, while not very large, or full, was fair, and free, and the election itself was conducted without intimidation or any overawing on the part of the military.

Hundreds of men whose homes were in the county were absent from them, and in one or the other of the armies in the far South, and of course could not and did not vote. Provision had been made for the holding of elections in Missouri Federal regiments then in the field, but it would seem that comparatively few of the men from Livingston voted. Only about twenty-five soldier votes were reported. Of these those stationed at points in the county were not allowed to vote at the ordinary polling places, but, each military troop had a ballot-box of its own, presided over by three sworn judges and two clerks, and this polling-place was required to be separate and away from where the civilians voted, in order that the presence of the soldiers might not intimidate the citizens. So far as thin county was concerned, the bayonet protected the ballot-box and did not attempt to control it.

The only issue involved in the election of 1862 in Missouri was the question of emancipation. Two years before, the advocate of emancipation did not reside in this county - at least he did not make himself known - but now the idea was seriously considered, and in many quarters was favorably considered. At that time the emancipationists favored paying all loyal owners" of slaves a reasonable compensation for all slaves freed; it was not until a year or two later that the idea of forced and uncompensated emancipation became generally popular. The anti-emancipationists were slightly in the majority in this county. They opposed the agitation of the question of abolition in any form while the war lasted. They sought to keep the Negro question and the Union question separate and apart.

No voter was allowed to cast a ballot without first taking and subscribing to the "Gamble Oath," to support the United States government, and the "Gamble" or provisional government of the State, and that the subscriber had not since December 17, 1861, willfully taken up arms or levied war against either. The date referred to was that on which Gov. Gamble issued a proclamation, endorsed by President Lincoln, promising amnesty and pardon to all persons who had take up arms against the Federal or provisional government if they would lay down their arms and come forward and take an oath of loyalty. In many portions of the State men who fought under Price at Wilson's Creek and Lexington were voters at home in 1862.

Following was the result of the election in this county in November (4) 1862: -

Congressman - J. P. Bruce,* 376; Ben. F. Loan, Rep. E., 179; H. B. Branch, Rep. Anti-E., 127.

State Senator - W. H. Brownlee,* Rep. 214; J. McCullough,* 225; J. H. Ellis, E., 161; R. D. Morrison, 65.

Representative - J. T. Gudgell,* 334; John Barnes, R,, 221; S. P. Mountain, E., 136.

Sheriff - Ed. Gudgell,* 550; L. S. McCoy, R., 127.

Those marked with a star (*) were Democrats or Anti-Emancipationists. Other county officers chosen were John Stone,* county judge; W. I. Lumpkin,* county clerk; R. F. Dunn, circuit clerk; R. B. Williams,* coroner; J. B. Bell,* treasurer; Z. N. Goldsby, R., assessor; A. Fauqueran, public administrator. About twenty-five soldier votes were cast - 17 from Cos. E and D, of Merrill's Horse, and 5 from Co. H, 6th Missouri cavalry.


At the general election in Missouri in 1868, but two tickets were voted for, both claiming to he "Union." One ticket, headed by Barton Bates, W. V. N. Bay and John D: S. Dryden for Supreme Judges, was called the Conservative ticket; the other, headed by H. A. Clover, Arnold Krekel and David Wagner, was denominated the Radical, or "Charcoal" ticket. The latter was supported by the immediate emancipationists.

There being large numbers of the military under arms in the State, and the excitement running high, apprehension was felt that in many quarters they would attempt to influence the election by the intimidation of voters, etc. To prevent anything of this sort Maj.-Gen. Schofield, the commander of this department, issued an order (No. 101) from his headquarters at St. Louis, under date of September 28, in which he declared that no interference with the right of the people to peaceably assemble for lawful purposes, and to express their will at the polls, would be tolerated. The severest penalties were threatened against any officer or soldier who should interfere in any manner with the peaceable assemblage of the people; and -

Any officer, soldier or civilian, who shall attempt to intimidate any qualified voter in the exercise of his right to vote, or who shall attempt to prevent any qualified voter from going to the polls, or voting, shall be punished by imprisonment or otherwise, at the discretion of a court martial or military commission.

This election is remarkable for being the first in Missouri, under a

general law, where voting was done by ballot, and not viva voce, or

by word of mouth. Following was the vote in Livingston county: -

Supreme Judges - Conservatives, 656; Radicals, 306.

Circuit Judge - Col. J. M. McFerran, Cons., 629; Jonas J. Clark, Radical, 292. Clark was elected.

State Senator - A. S. Harris, Cons., 648.; I. V; Pratt, Rad., 269.

It will be noted that the Conservatives carried the county by a vote of more than two to one.


The vote of Livingston county at the Presidential election in 1864 is given below. The Democratic Presidential ticket was composed of Gen. George B. McClellan and George H. Pendleton, and the Republican national nominees were Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson.

President - Lincoln, 342; McClellan, 297.

Governor - Thos. C. Fletcher, R., 507; Thos. L. Price, D., 459.

Congress - H. B. Branch, R., 474; Ben. F. Loan, Rad. R., 450.

Representative - J. W. McMillen, R., 424; B. F. Sherman, D., 410.

Sheriff - Garrison Harker, R., 412; Ed. Gudgel, D., 408.

County Clerk - B. J. Wiley, 425; R. L. Williams, 416.

S. B. Deland and R. B. Moss, both Republicans, were elected county justices; S. B. Bell, teasurer; J. W. Anderson, assessor; E. H. Bement, coroner.

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